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Science at George School

Science at George School encourages you to ask questions, explore hypotheses, and ultimately understand the world in which we live. Our academic schedule provides ample time for hands-on learning through experimentation, in both the lab and the field.

Paths can vary greatly from student to student, going beyond the big three of chemistry, biology, and physics to include computer programming, robotics, environmental science, and more targeted courses, such as cognitive neurology and forensic science. Understanding the world, after all, involves looking at it from different perspectives—even varied scientific ones.

Science Department Courses

Biology

This course investigates ecology, evolution, biochemistry, cell biology, Mendelian genetics, and diversity of life. Concepts presented in lectures are illustrated using demonstrations, activities, and experiments. Students will hone their abilities to articulate their knowledge clearly and concisely, both orally and in writing. Lab reports will include data collection and analysis of experimental outcomes; students should be able to apply basic algebraic skills to these analyses. Students may be assigned supplemental readings in addition to readings from the textbook.

The first mod of this course (which is the same as the first mod of Intensive Biology) focuses on Evolution and Ecology; the second focuses on Cell Biology and Biochemistry.

This course fulfills the biology graduation requirement.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-2.0

Prerequisite: Chemistry or Intensive Chemistry

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Intensive Biology

This course investigates ecology, evolution, biochemistry, molecular biology, bioenergetics, cell biology, Mendelian and non-Mendelian genetics, and diversity of life. Concepts with increasing complexity and abstraction will be tackled. Students should expect to handle large amounts of material and must be able to articulate their knowledge clearly and concisely, both orally and in writing. Lab experiments will regularly be conducted in class, followed by assigned lab reports. Students should be able to apply algebraic skills and statistical analyses to their data. Students may be assigned technical and complex supplemental readings, in addition to readings from the textbook. This course is the required prerequisite course for IB Biology SL, IB Biology HL, and AP Biology; exceptions to this must be approved by the department.
The first mod of this course (which is the same as the first mod of Intensive Biology) focuses on Evolution and Ecology; the second focuses on Cell Biology and Biochemistry, and the third mod focuses on Molecular Biology.
This course fulfills the biology graduation requirement.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Chemistry (A) or Intensive Chemistry (B+)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Biotechnology

To understand topics in molecular biology this course focuses primarily on implementing various lab techniques, including bacterial transformation, DNA extraction, restriction enzyme digest, gel electrophoresis, PCR, protein purification, and possibly DNA barcoding. Students investigate topics including DNA and protein structure, DNA replication, Mendelian genetics, GMO’s, plasmid mapping, gene regulation, and protein synthesis. Students learn how these techniques are applied in the fields of forensics, immunology, the food industry, agriculture, and pharmaceuticals. This elective class is a prerequisite for AP and IB Biology courses.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: 2 credits of Biology

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Marine Biology

This course investigates marine habitats including oceans, bays, estuaries, and intertidal zones, focusing primarily on the eastern United States. Students will learn about marine ecosystems and the organisms that inhabit them, with noted emphasis on the strategies and adaptations that enhance survival. Attention will be paid to factors threatening marine environments including pollution, climate change, urban development, and tourism. Students will learn through direct instruction, group work, scientific investigations, and field studies of marine environments. Overnight trips are likely to Barnegat Bay and Island Beach State Park. Trip fees could be applied to cover costs.
Students who enroll in this course are expected to work collaboratively and cooperatively with classmates. They should anticipate making presentations to the class and conducting a marine biology research project. Outdoor work along the shoreline is expected and students need to be able to walk, dig, carry, and lift materials.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: 1 credit of biology

Open to: 11, 12

IB HL Biology

This two-year sequence prepares students for the IB Higher Level (HL) Biology exam. Lecture-format classes are combined with frequent experiments to investigate all major topics in the IB HL Biology curriculum. Information is covered in detail and at a fast pace. Nightly homework typically includes readings in the textbook, writing a lab report, studying for quizzes & tests, or completing analysis of scientific studies with data-based questions. The course includes an IB-style group research project. Students also design and conduct a fully independent biology research project which is required as part of the IB’s internal assessment. Students are required to complete a summer assignment in preparation for this class. This 5-mod course should be split over junior and senior years.

Taking the external IB HL Biology exam is a requirement of this course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 5.0-5.0

Prerequisite: 3 credits of Chemistry (A) or Intensive Chemistry (B+), 3 credits of Intensive Biology (B+) and Biotechnology

Satisfactory performance on a placement test is required for those students whose prerequisite biology class was taken somewhere other than George School.

Open to: 11

AP Biology

This course prepares students for the AP Biology exam. Students investigate evolution, biochemistry, metabolism, and molecular biology. Topics are covered in detail and at a fast pace. Nightly homework typically includes reading a chapter in a college-level textbook, writing a lab report, or writing an essay. Occasional evening and/or weekend labs are required in order to fulfill AP lab expectations. Most labs are inquiry-based, requiring students to develop their scientific skills and work more independently. Students are required to complete a summer assignment in preparation for the class.

Taking the external AP Biology exam is a requirement of this course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: 3 credits of Chemistry (A) or Intensive Chemistry (B+), 3 credits of Intensive Biology (B+) and Biotechnology
Prerequisite for '22-23: Intensive Biology (B+) and Intensive Chemistry (B+) or Chemistry (A)

Open to: 11, 12

Chemistry

The major concepts of inorganic chemistry are covered in this course. These include properties of matter, atomic structure, molecular bonding, typical chemical reactions, the mole, stoichiometry, acids and bases, gases, and solutions. The study of these topics requires an understanding of basic algebraic concepts and mathematical calculations to demonstrate quantitative principles.

Learning is supported by weekly lab activities and demonstrations. Students are expected to read and practice problems daily. Frequent written lab assignments are required. Students develop skills in data collection and analysis and are taught to use software tools to support this work.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9, 10

Intensive Chemistry

The major concepts of inorganic chemistry are covered in this course. These include properties of matter, atomic structure, molecular bonding, typical chemical reactions, the mole, stoichiometry, acids and bases, gases, and solutions. The study of these topics requires a facility with single-variable algebra and mathematical calculations to demonstrate quantitative principles.

Learning is supported by weekly lab activities and demonstrations. Students are expected to read and practice problems daily. Frequent written lab assignments are required. Students develop skills in data collection and analysis and are taught to use software tools to support this work.

Intensive Chemistry students take the same first mod as Chemistry students, followed by two mods of Intensive Chemistry. Placement into the faster-paced, more mathematically focused Intensive Chemistry mods is based on students’ expressed interest and performance on a common summative assessment toward the end of the first mod.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9, 10

Advanced Topics in Chemistry

In this course, students learn about oxidation-reduction reactions, equilibrium in the context of stoichiometry, mathematical aspects of reaction kinetics, and the thermochemical concepts of enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy. Students apply knowledge from their previous chemistry course to these more complex contexts.

Students learn through experiments, engaging activities, and out-of-class assignments. Students also design their own laboratory investigation. After successfully completing this 1-mod course, students may choose to enroll in AP Chemistry.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: Chemistry (A-) or Intensive Chemistry (B)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

AP Chemistry

This course prepares students for the AP chemistry exam. Students are assumed to have a strong understanding of topics taught in a first-year chemistry course. In addition to studying foundational concepts in more detail, students learn acid-base chemistry, spectroscopy techniques, relationships between macroscopic and microscopic properties, kinetics, equilibrium, oxidation-reduction, electrochemistry, and standard lab procedures. This is a fast-paced course with a significant laboratory component, and students are expected to design some of their own lab procedures and learn actively during all class sessions. Students are required to complete a substantial summer assignment in preparation for this course.

Taking the external AP Chemistry exam is a requirement of this course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Intensive Chemistry (B) or Chemistry (A-) and Advanced Topics in Chemistry (B)
Prerequisite for '22-'23: Intensive Chemistry (B) or Chemistry (A-)
Satisfactory performance on a placement test is required for those students whose prerequisite chemistry class was taken somewhere other than George School.

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Physics

This course helps students discover physical laws firsthand, at a pace that allows for the development of required mathematical concepts. Major concepts covered include kinematics, laws of motion, energy, momentum, gravity, circular motion, electricity, magnetism, and electrical circuits. Frequent lab experiments are performed during class.
Students interested in taking an IB or AP Physics course in the future should take Intensive Physics instead of this course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Math 3 or an Algebra 2 course or Intensive Geometry with Trigonometry. In addition, 10th graders wishing to enroll must have earned either a B in Chemistry or a B- in Intensive Chemistry.

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Intensive Physics

This course helps students discover physical laws firsthand, at a pace that requires mastery of algebra and trigonometry. Major concepts covered include kinematics, laws of motion, energy, momentum, gravity, circular motion, electricity, magnetism, and electrical circuits. Topics are presented at a deeper level in order to prepare students for future study in International Baccalaureate (IB) and Advanced Placement (AP) physics courses. Frequent lab experiments are performed during class.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Intensive Algebra 2 (B+) or Math 4 (B+) or Algebraic and Geometric Analysis (C). In addition, 10th graders wishing to enroll must have earned either an A in Chemistry or a B+ in Intensive Chemistry. Juniors and seniors need to have earned a B in a biology or chemistry course.

Prerequisite for ’22-’23: Intensive Algebra 2 (B+) or Intensive Geometry with Trigonometry (A-) or Advanced Algebraic and Geometry Analysis (C). In addition, 10th graders wishing to enroll must have earned either an A in Chemistry or a B+ in Intensive Chemistry. Juniors and seniors need to have earned a B in a biology or chemistry course.

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Astrophysics

In this course, students explore the basics of astronomy and other subjects related to physics. We examine our solar system, stellar lifecycles, and the structure and creation of the universe. Topics will align with the IB curriculum and may include: spectral lines, special relativity, and even recent breakthroughs on gravitational waves.

This class is available to juniors & seniors who have previously learned Newton’s laws of motion and forces. Current enrollment in precalculus or an equivalent class is highly encouraged. Students should expect to participate in labs, analyze real astronomical data, and partake in nighttime observations when weather permits.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: 2 credits of physics

Open to: 11, 12

IB SL Physics

This course prepares students for the International Baccalaureate Standard Level (SL) exam, as well as algebra-based physics at the college level. Substantial time is spent in the laboratory. Topics include mechanics, thermal physics, waves, electricity and magnetism, circular motion and gravitation, atomic, nuclear and particle physics, and energy production. Students must have mastered multi-variable algebra, trigonometry, logarithms, and exponents. Students should be familiar with vectors and mathematical modeling of data. All students must also complete a 10-hour independent research project. All students enrolled in the course are required to take the IB exam.

The course is split over two years, with at least two mods taken in 12th grade.

Taking the IB SL Physics exam is a requirement of this course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 4.0-4.0

Prerequisite: 2 credits of Intensive Physics (B)

Open to: 11, 12

IB HL Physics

This course prepares students for the International Baccalaureate Higher Level (HL) exam, as well as algebra-based physics at the college level. Substantial time is spent in the laboratory. Topics include mechanics, thermal physics, waves, electricity and magnetism, circular motion and gravitation, atomic, nuclear, and particle physics, and energy production. Students must have mastered multi-variable algebra, trigonometry, logarithms, and exponents. Students should be familiar with vectors and mathematical modeling of data. All students must also complete a 10-hour independent research project.

In 2022-23 ONLY, the first mod of this course will be an intensive introduction to physics for those who have not taken Intensive Physics. Students who have taken Intensive Physics do not take this first mod. (In subsequent years, this will be a 6-mod course for everyone.)

Taking the external IB HL Physics exam is a requirement of this course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 6.0-7.0

Prerequisite:
For the class of '25 and following: Intensive Physics (3 credits, A-) plus Math 3 (A-) or a precalculus course or Advanced Analysis concurrently
For the class of '24: Intensive Physics (A-); plus Intensive Geometry with Trigonometry (A-) or a precalculus class concurrently

Open to: 11, 12

AP Physics C Mechanics

This highly demanding 2-mod course follows the syllabus of the AP Physics C-Mechanics exam, preparing students for calculus-based physics at the university level. Topics include Newton’s laws of motion, work, energy, linear momentum, circular motion, rotation, and oscillations. Students learn how to solve complex physics problems using differential and integral calculus. Students must have mastered multi-variable algebra, trigonometry, vectors, logarithms, exponents, and mathematical modeling of data with and without a graphing calculator, as well as basic differentiation and integration.

Taking the AP Physics C: Mechanics exam is a requirement of this course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-2.0

Prerequisite: Intensive Physics (A-); plus AP Calculus - AB, or at least one mod of either Calculus or AP Calculus - BC
Prerequisite for '22-23: Intensive Physics (A-); plus AP Calculus - AB, or AP Calculus - BC, or IB Calculus SL

Open to: 11, 12

AP Physics C Electricity & Magnetism

This highly demanding 2-mod course follows the AP Physics C-Electricity & Magnetism syllabus, preparing students for calculus-based physics at the university level. Topics include electrostatics, conductors, capacitors, dielectrics, inductance, electric circuits, magnetic fields, and electromagnetism. Students learn how to solve complex physics problems using differential and integral calculus. Students must have mastered multi-variable algebra, trigonometry, vectors, logarithms, exponents, basic differentiation and integration, and mathematical modeling of data with and without a graphing calculator.

Taking the AP Physics C: Electricity & Magnetism exam is a requirement of this course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-2.0

Prerequisite: 2 credits of Intensive Physics; plus AP Calculus - AB, or at least one mod of either Calculus or AP Calculus - BC
Prerequisite '22-'23: Intensive Physics (A-); plus AP Calculus - AB, or AP Calculus - BC, or IB Calculus SL

Open to: 11, 12

Introduction to STEAM

This single mod course introduces the students to some of the STEAM technologies used in many of our other courses in a fun and creative way. Students have an opportunity to create and fabricate on our 3D printers and laser cutters. We then apply some of these new skills with interactive demonstrations and experiments in physics, chemistry, electronics and computer science.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Physical Computing & Robotics

This is a largely self-directed and flexible course that is project-oriented and driven significantly by student interests. During the three mods, students develop experience with basic programming in C, circuit design and breadboarding, LED lighting effects, sensors, motors, servo control, 3D printing, and laser cutting. When we get to the robotics portion in mod 2, each student will have their own robot to work with. Once the student has shown an understanding of programming basics, CAD design, and electronics, they are on their own to create, build and program one or more robotic applications that will perform some autonomous task, usually incorporating simple feedback control systems. Students will display their projects during the Interactive Robotics Open House, which takes place at the end of the academic year. Students who are uncomfortable applying science and mathematics to everyday situations may find this course will provide practical and relevant ways to help refine and augment their own knowledge of science and mathematics. This course fulfills the physical science requirement. Students take the following modules in order, and students who have successfully completed AP Computer Science may begin with the second module rather than the first.

Introduction to Physical Computing: Module 1
In the first module of the Physical Computing and Robotics class series, students focus mostly on C++ coding techniques and hardware interactions used with embedded controllers. Students build circuits using breadboards and printed circuits to work with LED lighting effects, sensors, motors, displays, audio emitters, and other devices.

Sensing the World with Robotics: Module 2
In the second term of the Physical Computing and Robotics class series, students focus on the integration of electronic sensory devices into mobile autonomous robotics. Each student has their own robot to work with. Once the student has shown an understanding of programming basics, CAD design, and electronics, they are on their own to create, build, and program one or more robotic applications that will perform some autonomous tasks.

Independent Projects in Physical Computing: Module 3
In the third term of the Physical computing and robotics class series, students focus on building a custom creation blending all available resources of the previous two terms. The sky is not the limit but, just another challenge in this module. Students get an opportunity to challenge themselves to create devices that incorporate embedded controllers into a plethora of creations from autonomous drones and submarines to wearable fashions and game controllers, it’s up to the student to design and prototype a show worthy system or device.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: any of the following - Advanced Algebraic and Geometric Analysis, Intensive Algebra 2, Functions, Trigonometry & Statistics, Algebra 2 (B+), or Intensive Geometry with Trigonometry (B-)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Intensive Physical Computing & Robotics

The pace of this course is parallel to Physical Computing & Robotics, but there is a difference in depth. Specifically, students in the Intensive class are required to solve about 25 percent more problems and are expected to show mastery of the basic topics as well as learn additional topics such as arrays, EEPROM data storage, and communications protocols. Students in this class are required to write nearly all of their algorithms from scratch. For the final project, their robots are expected to perform sophisticated autonomous tasks incorporating multiple feedback control systems. Students take the following modules in order, and students who have successfully completed AP Computer Science may begin with the second module rather than the first.

Introduction to Physical Computing: Module 1
In the first module of the Physical Computing and Robotics class series, students focus mostly on C++ coding techniques and hardware interactions used with embedded controllers. Students build circuits using breadboards and printed circuits to work with LED lighting effects, sensors, motors, displays, audio emitters, and other devices.

Sensing the World with Robotics: Module 2
In the second term of the Physical Computing and Robotics class series, students focus on the integration of electronic sensory devices into mobile autonomous robotics. Each student has their own robot to work with. Once the student has shown an understanding of programming basics, CAD design, and electronics, they are on their own to create, build, and program one or more robotic applications that will perform some autonomous tasks.

Independent Projects in Physical Computing: Module 3
In the third term of the Physical computing and robotics class series, students focus on building a custom creation blending all available resources of the previous two terms. The sky is not the limit but, just another challenge in this module. Students get an opportunity to challenge themselves to create devices that incorporate embedded controllers into a plethora of creations from autonomous drones and submarines to wearable fashions and game controllers, it’s up to the student to design and prototype a show worthy system or device.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Intensive Algebra 2 (B) or Math 4 (B) or Algebraic and Geometric Analysis. In addition, 10th graders wishing to enroll must have earned either an A- in Chemistry or a B in Intensive Chemistry. Juniors and seniors need to have earned a B in a biology or chemistry course.

Prerequisite for ’22-’23: Intensive Algebra 2 (B) or Intensive Geometry with Trigonometry (A-) or Advanced Algebraic and Geometry Analysis. In addition, 10th graders wishing to enroll must have earned either an A- in Chemistry or a B in Intensive Chemistry. Juniors and seniors need to have earned a B in a biology or chemistry course.

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Applied Technologies in Botany

This course explores new and emerging tools for plant sciences, with a particular emphasis on botany and farming applications, such as plant breeding and production management. Robotic platforms gives students the ability to imagine, design, and build equipment for monitoring plant growth. Automated control and acquisition of growth variables provide insights into plant growth status, pest management, water, and fertilizer applications. This course is designed to expose students to cross-disciplinary knowledge to solve problems, requiring creativity and flexible thinking.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: 2 credits of biology and Introduction to Physical Computing Module 1 and Module 2
Prerequisite '22-23: a biology course and Introduction to Physical Computing

Open to: 11, 12

George School Field Studies

This course is an interdisciplinary, multi-sensory approach to examining the natural world found on the campus of George School. Through pen and paper and by “get your hands dirty” outdoor exploration, students immerse themselves in the nature that surrounds them while exploring writing and art, as a response to the human experience with nature. The course considers the ways that scientific discoveries inspire new visions in writing and art and the ways that writing and art inspire new approaches in science, in particular, conservation biology and ecology. This course takes place OUTSIDE and requires active participation from students. Students also create scientifically accurate biological illustrations in field notebooks.

Students experience a field ecology course, a Socratic seminar, and wildlife illustration. The course is broadly be broken into two sections of study: The Autumn and The Spring. During each section students read a selection of novels, short stories, and poems related to the study area while also actively participating in field work within the scope of that area of scholarship. Students utilize outdoor spaces on the GS campus such as the Fireplace near the Newtown Creek to discuss the readings. Students are not required to take both mods.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-2.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Environmental Science: Sustainable Systems

This environmental science course is designed to look at a wide range of interdisciplinary topics through a sustainability lens: how to live more harmoniously with nature and not deplete its non-renewable resources. Major topics include climate science, global warming, geological processes, plate tectonics, volcanology, ecological principles, conservation biology, resource management, renewable energy, population impact, environmental stewardship, sustainable development, organic gardening, green living, and environmental politics.

Concepts are presented in lectures, student presentations. Inquiry-based projects are supplemented with lab investigations. Campus walks and studies reinforce the concepts discussed in class. The curriculum is supplemented by online articles and other sources to synchronize the course with current environmental issues. Students are assessed on participation in class discussions and activities, as well as lab reports and testing.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: two credits of biology or three credits of chemistry
Prerequisite for '22-23: a biology or chemistry course

Open to: 11, 12

IB SL Environmental Systems

This lab-driven, interdisciplinary course prepares students for the IB Environmental Systems & Societies exam. Students use systems thinking to explore ecosystems, energy and nutrient transformations, population dynamics, biodiversity, and the issues of global warming and pollution management. Students also investigate a range of environmental value systems with reference to specific environmentally-related decisions made locally and globally. Students should expect to work knee-deep in water or trudge through thick meadows, rain or shine, because fieldwork is central to understanding the environment. A summer assignment is required in preparation for the course, and this course can be taken over two years. All students are also required to participate in the IB Group 4 (IBG4) collaborative research project and complete an independent research project for the IB Internal Assessment.

Taking the external IB SL Environmental Systems and Societies exam is a requirement of this course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 4.0-4.0

Prerequisite: one credit of Evo/Eco Biology (while only one credit of biology is required for this course, two credits of biology are required for graduation)
Prerequisite for '22-23: Biology (B-) or Intensive Biology (C+)

Open to: 11, 12

Animal Behavior

This single mod course is designed to introduce students to the major topics in animal behavior, or ethology, from a sociobiological point of view. It familiarizes students with some general non-human behaviors such as territoriality, breeding behaviors, animal societies, and other predictable ways that animals interact with each other. Students study numerous species through videos or direct observation. When possible, students study animals living on campus. Students are expected to read articles and segments from textbooks dealing with social behaviors. There is a major research project studying a specific species that students must complete and present in order to pass the course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: one credit of Evo/Eco Biology (while only one credit of biology is required for this course, two credits of biology are required for graduation)
Prerequisite for '22-23: Biology or Intensive Biology

Open to: 11, 12

Environmental Justice

In this course, students explore the relationship of exposure to environmental degradation and health risks to socioeconomic status and communities of color. Various issues of investigation include topics in rural, urban, local, domestic, and international regions. Students examine current examples of environmental injustice and choose a topic for a project-based unit (PBL). Laboratory investigations and data analysis are incorporated regularly into the work.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: two credits of biology

Open to: 11, 12

Science & Literature

This course is cross-listed as MUL430L (Extradisciplinary) and ENG550C (English). See MUL430L (Extradisciplinary) in the Extradisciplinary section of the catalog for description.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: 1 credit of either Biology or Intensive Biology

Open to: 11, 12

Cognitive Neurology

This course is designed to study how we as humans acquire skills and knowledge thanks to brain plasticity and synaptic pruning. On a more fundamental level, it looks at the biological and social constraints of how and what we learn. Students investigate: cognitive biases and mindsets, decision-making processes, our drive and thirst for knowledge, primate cognition and social intelligence, the neurology of memory, and the role cognition has played in our evolution, behavior, and perception.

Students explore some of the questions regarding the way we, as a species, perceive, behave, and respond to the world around us, challenging themselves to look for personal connections. As they search for a deeper understanding of the scientific principles covered, students examine the validity of the theories presented to them about how the brain works. Labs explore the student’s perception and ability to learn from games and cognitive situations and simulations. Students also do online investigations about the parts of the brain. Students are expected to write thorough reflections from readings, discussions, and lab activities.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-2.0

Prerequisite: 2 credits of biology
Prerequisite for '22-23: a biology course

Open to: 11, 12

Human Anatomy and Physiology

This course takes a holistic and applied approach to introducing students to the structure and function of the systems in the human body. The course relies heavily on laboratory activities, as well as discussions that emphasize the interconnected nature of anatomy and physiology. Laboratories include the dissection of preserved comparative anatomy specimens and the use of small Manikens® to support building anatomical structures with clay. The class is appropriate for any student interested in pursuing a medical-related field of study, such as human and veterinary medicine, physical therapy, nursing, biomedical research and beyond. It is also appropriate for students who have an interest in anatomy and physiology as it applies to their own health and wellness.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: one credit of Cell Bio/Biochem (while only one credit of biology is required for this course, two credits of biology are required for graduation)
Prerequisite for '22-23: a biology course (C)

Open to: 11, 12

Independent Science Research

This non-traditional course provides the student who enrolls the opportunity to further develop a keen interest in science through cooperation with a mentor and the coordinating George School teacher. Students who enroll must identify and cultivate a relationship with a mentor in order to design and carry out an independent scientific research project. The project can be done either on or off campus. Projects may incorporate any step(s) of the scientific process, including grant writing, experimental design, sample collection, sample testing, data analysis, and presentation of findings.

Because of the independent nature of the work, the course does not meet during an arrangement. The project may be implemented after school, on weekends, and/or during vacations. The number of credits awarded will be dependent upon the time required to implement the project. Typically, a 50-hour project will earn 1 credit, a 75-hour project will earn 2 credits and a 100-hour project will earn 3 credits.

As part of this course, students complete an online curriculum in which they explore the scientific method and develop skills in reading scientific literature, and each student makes a public presentation on their project. The exact nature of the presentation is developed in consultation with the coordinating teacher.

Students should contact the science department head for detailed instructions on developing a proposal.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-9.0

Prerequisite: Three years of high school science with a B+ or higher in each class and approval of the department. Students must have completed at least one term at George School to enroll. A student enrolling in this course during the academic year must be taking no fewer than six and no more than seven other courses concurrently.

Open to: 11, 12

Wildlife Conservation & Ecology in Uganda

This course is cross-listed as MUL991U (Extradisciplinary). See MUL991U (Extradisciplinary) in the Extradisciplinary section of the catalog for description.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

South Africa: Art, Ecology & Social Justice

This course is cross-listed as MUL990S (Extradisciplinary) and ARV990S (Arts). See the course description for MUL990S (Extradisciplinary) in the Extradisciplinary section of the catalog.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

More to Explore

Visiting Golden Monkeys in Rwanda

Tomorrow will be an early morning to see the rare Golden Monkeys followed by a visit to a cultural village for drumming, dancing, and local food. Students are in good spirits, engaged in the work, and learning to work as a group.

Two Students Advance to USNCO National Examination

George School is pleased to announce that Forest Ho-Chen ’22 and Vinay Thulasiram ’23 have scored high enough on the U.S. National Chemistry Olympiad (USNCO) Local Examination to advance to USNCO National Examination testing.

The Virtual Classroom: Computing and Robotics

In our virtual classroom, students everywhere in the world could program a robot that’s sitting here at George School. That was extraordinarily exciting and uncommon at the high school level.