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Chart Your Own Course

A George school education is designed to open doors and keep them open as long as possible. Our academic program lets you chart your own path—one that is as challenging as it is customized to you. Below is a preliminary list of courses offered for the 2022-2023 academic year. Current students and families can register for next year on our secure portal. Graduation requirements are available here.

Course Selection

To find a course, please use the filter below.

Tap Dance

This class is intended to improve rhythm and musicality for students learning and/or developing tap technique. The course looks at the evolution of tap from its inception in the United States during the 1700s. It emphasizes precision and isolations. Classes begin with foot isolating warm-ups, move into step-based skill building, and end with across-the-floor work. Some choreography and improvisation is also included.

This class is open to all students and is recommended for theater students and anyone interested in the Musical Theater performance class. This class can be repeated.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Dance Studies

The study of dance is expressive human movement that unites the physical with the intellectual and the emotional with the spiritual. It utilizes the body as a means of communication and has the power to unify people across boundaries of language, cultures, and other divisionary lines. Dance Studies aims to strengthen and develop the dancer’s instrument. Areas of focus include: dance vocabulary, styles and techniques, safe and effective use of the body, and basic elements of choreography. Students in this course are required to take a 3-mod core sequence, consisting of 2 mods in Contemporary Dance and 1 mod in Ballet. Students taking this course for a second time may add Jazz as a 4th mod of the core sequence if desired. See individual course descriptions below.

Contemporary dance is an important genre of dance performed in societies around the world. It trains and encourages dancers to be versatile in their expressions and to be able to portray a wide variety of movement styles and emotions. Primary areas of focus include: spatial and body awareness, flexibility in the use of the body, efficiency of muscular usage, safe body alignment, and musicality.

The Ballet mod is designed to develop awareness of alignment and basic ballet vocabulary and technique through barre work, center, and across-the-floor exercises. It emphasizes movement quality, carriage of upper body, core and leg strength, and flexibility.

The Jazz mod includes a variety of jazz styles, both historical and contemporary. It emphasizes strength, isolations, syncopated rhythms, and precision. Classes begin with warm-up exercises and then move into across-the-floor work. Students utilize skills and techniques to learn choreography devised for a variety of music styles.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-4.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Advanced Dance Studies & Performance

This course is a continuation of the first core sequence in dance studies. Students continue to expand their dance repertoire with the addition of a performance element. The 3-mod core sequence of required classes consists of 1 mod in Contemporary Dance, 1 mod of the Advanced Performance Ensemble, and a choice of 1 mod of Jazz, Ballet, or a second mod of Contemporary Dance. Additional mods of any dance class may be taken if desired. Students may take this class multiple years.

The Advanced Performance Ensemble mod takes students through the process of preparing for and presenting a dance concert. Students are challenged to choreograph and dance in their own work to be auditioned for inclusion in the dance concert. In addition, they perform in the teacher-choreographed pieces. The concert is the culmination of a term of work and is presented to the public as two performances on the stage in Walton Auditorium.

See Dance Studies (ARP110A) for descriptions of Contemporary, Ballet, and Jazz mods.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-5.0

Prerequisite: Dance Studies (3 credits) or permission of instructor

Open to: 11, 12

IB Dance

Students work both individually and in collaboration to experience the creative process as a way of learning to transform ideas into action through intellectual curiosity and creative thinking. The IB Dance curriculum is designed to help students come to appreciate the value and importance of researching, creating, preparing and presenting, and critically reflecting as modes of learning and communicating. In the process, students gain a richer understanding of themselves, their personal cultural perspectives, and cultural ideas and practices in the global community. The assessments that together comprise the IB exam score are the Composition and Analysis (two for SL dance works composed by the student, along with a written statement to accompany one of the dances), the Dance Investigation (a written report of 1500 words for SL), and the Performance (a combination of solo/duet and group performances).

IB Dance embraces a variety of dance traditions and dance cultures, both current and past, while also encouraging students to look towards the future through the lens of dance. Performance, creative, and analytical skills are developed through the creation and performance of dance and through research and writing assignments. Students come to understand dance as a set of practices with their own histories and theories, and to understand that these practices integrate physical, intellectual, and emotional knowledge, while simultaneously experiencing dance as an individual and collective exploration of the expressive possibilities of bodily movement. The course aims to help students understand and appreciate mastery in various dance styles and to use dance to create a dialogue among cultures.

The SL dance curriculum requires that a student take the three required mods of Advanced Dance Studies & Performance (ARP110F) in both 11th and 12th grades. In addition, all IB Arts students attend the IB Arts Block, which meets for 45 minutes weekly throughout the academic year.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 6.0-10.0

Prerequisite: Dance at George School (3 credits, B) or dance experience and permission of department

Open to: 11, 12

Dance and the Creative Process

“To be creative you have to know how to prepare to be creative. . . . There's a process that generates creativity--and you can learn it. And you can make it habitual.” —Twyla Tharp

The central text of this course, in which students apply the creative process to choreography to produce dance works of their own, is Twyla Tharp's "The Creative Habit." The course begins with an exploration of the steps taken during the creative journey. These include choosing, investigating, and exploring a topic, solving problems, refining ideas, and creating a final product. Students work through these steps to create a movement of their own artistic design. In the second half of the course, students build on their understanding of the creative process as they study the methods and techniques of professional choreographers, and then choose one choreographer's creative process as a model for developing and presenting a dance of their own.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: 3 credits of either Dance or Theater at George School (can be taken concurrently)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Film Production 1

In this foundation-building course, students engage in a variety of exercises designed to develop fundamental knowledge and a basic understanding of film production. Skills covered include camera operation, story development, basic shot composition, project planning as well as scheduling, editing, and post-production work. In addition to film production skills, students acquire a basic vocabulary for film analysis, enabling them to discern greater meaning and appreciation of film as a communicative medium. This is intended to lead students from passive movie watchers to active film readers. As students acquire the fundamental knowledge and skills of filmmaking, they take on the role of a creative producer, learning to translate their ideas into successful films. Limited-scale exercises in the first term help students develop the skills necessary to complete longer, and more complex projects in the second and third terms. Students are expected to produce work that will be shown at the George School Film Festival. In addition, they are expected to attend theatrical film screenings on campus and off.

Students must progress through the mods in sequential order if they take more than one mod, though the progression may span multiple years.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Film Production 2

Film 2 is a highly collaborative, workshop-based class in which students expand their knowledge of film production and analysis and improve on the skills developed in Film Production 1. The focus is on the five primary production roles: directing, editing, writing, sound, and cinematography. Short, targeted assignments in the first term are designed to help students practice and refine their skills in these primary roles. As students build knowledge and expertise, assignments shift to more creative, open-ended projects in the second and third mods. Through the lens of Quakerism, students are expected to let their films speak and to submit at least one project to an external festival for outside consideration. In addition, students screen their work at the George School Film Festival. Students are also expected to attend theatrical film screenings both on campus and off.

Students must progress through the mods in sequential order if they take more than one mod, though the progression may span multiple years.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Film Production 1 (3 credits)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Advanced Film Production

This studio-production and research-based class emphasizes scripting, project planning, more sophisticated camera work and production practices, as well as advanced editing and post-production techniques, all through the lens of Quakerism. Devising original films is the primary goal of this course. Students continue to work collaboratively on strengthening and refining their filmmaking skills as well as deepening their understanding of the five primary production roles. Students learn to use film as a vehicle for artistic self-expression, and learn to identify and develop their creative intentions through a range of production projects and also through concentrated research and written reflection.

The first mod, Production Roles, focuses on the skills required for and interconnections among the production roles of writing, directing, sound design, cinematography, and editing. Students taking this course for the first time are assigned small-scale creative projects to develop proficiency in each role. Students taking this course for a second time work collaboratively as a production team to develop mastery of one production role towards a larger creative project. 11th grade IB students develop and begin their portfolio plans. 12th grade IB students complete their portfolios and begin working on their collaborative film through the lens of their designated production role.

In the second mod, Signal to Noise, students explore composition and intentionality, learning to make deliberate choices that “signal” their message and voice, while simultaneously eliminating distracting “noise.” Consideration is given to how genre-specific choices such as story, mis-en-scène, sound, and editing can either distract from or enhance the voice and intention of the director.

The focus of the third mod, The Filmmaker's Voice, is on directorial choices. Students consider Auteur Theory and study a variety of directors to understand how a filmmaker's production choices can create a unique style of storytelling. After receiving instruction on auteur theory and analyzing the work of a range of of well-known directors, students taking this course for the first time study of a single director and model a creative project in the style of their chosen filmmaker. Those taking the course for a second time are challenged to demonstrate a higher level of creativity in their production project, showcasing their own unique voice as a filmmaker, rather than imitating the style of another.

This course may be taken more than once. Students taking more than one credit must progress though the mods in sequential order, though the progression may span multiple years.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Film Production 2 (3 credits)

Open to: 11, 12

IB Film

As part of a two-year course of study, students work both individually and in collaboration to experience the creative process as a way of learning to transform ideas into action through intellectual curiosity and creative thinking. The IB Film curriculum is designed to help students come to appreciate the value and importance of researching, creating, preparing and presenting, and critically reflecting as modes of learning and communicating. In the process, students gain a richer understanding of themselves, their personal cultural perspectives, and cultural ideas and practices in the global community. The assessments that together comprise the IB exam score are the Portfolio, the Comparative Study, the Textual Analysis, and the Collaborative Project.

For SL Film, students take 5 mods over two years. In addition, all IB arts students attend the IB Arts Block, which meets for 45 minutes weekly throughout the academic year. In 11th grade, both SL and HL Film students take the first two mods (Production Roles and Signal to Noise) of Advanced Film (ARP210D), and the Textual Analysis mod described below.

It is recommended that the third mod (The Filmmaker's Voice) of Advanced Film also be taken in 11th grade, but if it is impossible to fit into the 11th grade schedule, this mod can be postponed until 12th grade. IB students are welcome to take all three mods of Advanced Film in both 11th and 12th grades in addition to the IB-specific mod each year if their schedule allows.

In the 11th grade IB mod, students complete the IB Textual Analysis essay, a 1750-word paper in which students explore how meaning is conveyed through the use of film elements in the chosen film text. Students develop film vocabulary and a broad knowledge of cultural contexts to use in their analysis. Students are supported in their research skills, analytical argumentation, and writing during this process.

In the 12th grade IB HL mod, students complete the culminating Collaborative Project, in which each student is assigned a production role and works as part of a team to develop and produce a creative film. Students will also be supported in writing the 2000-word report that is an essential part of this assignment, reflecting on the group’s creative intentions, production process and collaboration, as well as on the individual student’s contribution in a designated production role.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 5.0-5.0

Prerequisite: Film Production 1 (3 credits) or permission of department and additional preparatory work

Open to: 11, 12

Producing Peace: Civic Media Literacy & Production

This course is cross-listed as MUL770P (Extradisciplinary) and HIS770P (History). See the course description for MUL770P (Extradisciplinary) in the Extradisciplinary section of the catalog.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Vocal Ensemble

Students in this course receive training in vocal production and sight-reading as they explore a variety of vocal styles. Singers expand their musical horizons while experiencing an eclectic repertoire of music from around the world, including, but not limited to, early to contemporary classical music, a cappella, and jazz. Each term of the course culminates in a performance.

Those who are new to the study of music as an art form are taught basic music literacy and develop aural and sight-reading skills while refining individual singing abilities and forming an understanding of choral singing. As students progress through the course they begin to experiment with connections between theory and practice and develop their own original compositions and arrangements. Advanced students of vocal music focus on expanding and deepening their skills as performers and are taught to reflect on the creative possibilities inherent in the interaction among their own musical intuition, the composer's indications in a score, and their own detailed analysis of a piece. They develop the habit of considering what each of these elements offers as they make interpretive decisions about performance and develop their own performance style.

Students may take this course multiple times. Those taking the course for the first time must take the three mods in sequence, though the mods may be split between years. Once they have completed the sequence once, students may take any or all mods in subsequent years. In whatever mods they take, the focus of advanced students will be on analysis and performance.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Community Chorus

This chorus is open to all members of the George School campus community as well as neighbors and friends from the wider community. Singers receive training in vocal production, exposure to music-reading, and exposure to a varied repertoire. The course meets on Sunday evenings for approximately four months in preparation for one major concert. There are no meetings during the academic day. Those wishing to participate should be in touch with the music director for details. Those wishing to receive academic credit for the course should contact the registrar sometime during the first month of rehearsals.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

String Ensemble and Wind Ensemble

String and Wind Ensemble is are courses in musicianship for players of string, wind, and percussion instruments. (Percussionists should register for Wind Ensemble.) Through the preparation and performance of instrumental music, students learn elements of style, expression, ensemble technique, music theory, history of music, and music literature. The role of the performer and his or her responsibility to the composer, the audience, and fellow performers are ongoing themes in this class. A varied repertoire, ranging from Renaissance music to modern compositions, is performed not only by the full orchestra, but also by various smaller chamber ensembles. Each mod culminates in a performance, and in some mods there may be evening and/or weekend rehearsals and performances.

Students may take this course multiple times. Those taking the course for the first time must take the three mods in sequence, though the mods may be split between years. Once they have completed the sequence once, students may take any or all mods in subsequent years. In whatever mods they take, advanced students focus on expanding and deepening their skills as performers and are taught to reflect on the creative possibilities inherent in the interaction among their own musical intuition, the composer's indications in a score, and their own detailed analysis of a piece. They develop the habit of considering what each of these elements offers as they make interpretive decisions about performance and develop their own performance style.

To participate in either String or Wind Ensemble a student must demonstrate familiarity with their instrument; read music fluently; and have a working understanding of key signatures, basic rhythm patterns, and meter.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Audition

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Audio Recording & Music Production and Advanced Audio Recording & Music Production

Using industry-standard equipment and protocols, students in this course learn to creatively control their ideas in the recording and music production process. In the first mod, students explore the physics of sound and consider how sound is produced and amplified through the use of microphones in a variety of environments. Students are also introduced to the digital audio software ProTools and use it to complete an audio mixing project. In the second mod, students learn to creatively shape sound by using equalizers and dynamics processor. They are also introduced to the concept of the signal chain and learn to use automation to increase efficiency. In the third mod, students explore time delay effects and are introduced to the basics of audio mastering. In a culminating project, students work through the recording, mixing, and mastering stages to produce a full track.

This course may be split across two years. Students who have taken the full sequence once have the option to take any or all mods once more as Advanced Audio Recording.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: 3 credits of Vocal Ensemble, String Ensemble, or Wind Ensemble or permission of department

Open to: 10, 11, 12

IB Music

In this course, students work both individually and in collaboration to experience the creative process as a way of learning to transform ideas into action through intellectual curiosity and creative thinking. The IB Music curriculum is designed to help students come to appreciate the value and importance of researching, creating, preparing and presenting, and critically reflecting as modes of learning and communicating. In the process, students gain a richer understanding of themselves, their personal cultural perspectives, and cultural ideas and practices in the global community. The assessments that together comprise the IB exam score are Exploring Music in Context (a portfolio combining written work, compositions, and musical performances), Experimenting with Music (a 1500-word report supplemented by related excerpts from the student's compositions and performances), Presenting Music (a collection of program notes, composition or improvisation, and performance), and, for HL students, The Contemporary Music-Maker (a multimedia presentation documenting a real-life project).

The SL and HL music curricula require 6 mods. In addition, all IB Arts students attend the IB Arts Block, which meets for 45 minutes weekly throughout the academic year. Over the course of 11th and 12th grades, IB Music students take at least 4 mods of one of the music ensemble courses (ARP310A, ARP320A, ARP320D). At least two of these mods must be in 11th grade and at least one must be in 12th grade. (Ideally, a student would take all three mods of one of the ensemble courses in 11th grade.) In addition to the 4 mods of Vocal, String, or Wind Ensemble, students take a mod specific to 11th grade IB Music students and a mod specific to12th grade IB Music students.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 6.0-6.0

Prerequisite: 3 credits of Vocal Ensemble, String Ensemble, or Wind Ensemble or similar experience and permission of department

Open to: 11, 12

Stage Combat & Movement for the Performer

This course introduces students to the basic mechanics of physical conflict when performing and instills important safety practices. Exercise work examines the elements that make a fight scene safe, truthful, and interesting. The actor's individual approach to interpreting fight scenes and their use of body, movement, and style is developed and evaluated. Using proper warm-up techniques and disciplined repetition, students achieve confidence and the ability to take on, direct,or choreograph a role/scene that requires stage conflict or violence. The final exam consists of enacting an original 3- to 5-minute fight scene from a recognized performance piece (such as Romeo & Juliet or West Side Story) that is devised in partnered groups.

There is minimal homework associated with this class.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: 3 credits in Acting or Dance (may be taken concurrently)

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Theater Arts: Acting

This course builds the foundation for the actor’s approach and process. It is designed to welcome students into a safe environment to test and develop a reliable process. Students participate in ensemble-forming exercises that develop concentration, relax the actor, explore the meaning of truth, encourage spontaneity, foster real human behavior, and help the actor become more sensitive, imaginative, responsive, and alive on the stage. The process involved in this course allows students to discover themselves as artists and broaden their personal perspectives of social and human behaviors. Continued work aims to fully develop emotional and intellectual resources and bring more freedom to the work of the actor. In addition, students learn and establish a working vocabulary of terms used in the professional acting field. Participants are given the opportunity to stage Green Room productions.

The course is comprised of 3 mods: 1) Acting Techniques, 2) Developing Imagination and Truth, and 3) Working with a Script. The focus in the first mod-- which draws on the work of acting teachers including Sanford Meisner, Uta Hagen, Lee Strasberg, and Patsy Rodenburg--is on integrating practical analysis with a systematic, intuitive approach to acting. The second mod develops the student’s ability to make bold choices “in the moment,” developing a facility for abandoning intellectual control of their performances and responding to impulses. Students learn to approach improvisation as a rehearsal technique as well as a tool for character development. In the final mod of the sequence, students begin to analyze text and the actor’s role in storytelling, including connecting the specifics of text analysis to the emotional and physical portrayal of a role. Emphasis is on finding clear, compelling objectives, playing those objectives truthfully, and learning to live under the “imaginary circumstances” required in a script.

After completing the sequence in order once, students may repeat any or all of the mods in any order and will be challenged with more advanced exercises if they do so.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9, 10

Theater Arts: Advanced Acting & Directing

In the Advanced Acting & Directing class, students expand the skills they developed in Theater Arts: Acting. With a specific focus on world theater traditions and practices, students gain a deeper understanding and appreciation of themselves and their role as theater practitioners. They deepen their critical thinking skills and broaden their personal perspectives of social and human behaviors. Learning to ask probing questions and engaging in meaningful reflection, students develop their artistic perception and creative expression. Collaboration, trust and risk-taking are key elements of success at this level of study. Participants in the Advanced program are also given the opportunity to stage Green Room productions and audition for the performance classes from which the Main Stage shows are produced throughout the year.

The emphasis of the first mod, Styles and Techniques, is on the development of characterization techniques through participation in physical and vocal acting exercises. By exploring a variety of approaches and training methods specific to world theater practices, time period and genre, the actor continues to hone their mind, voice and physicality in ways that will allow them to portray a greater variety of characters.

In the second mod, Script Analysis and Monologues, the student learns, or deepens their facility with a focused process and method of analyzing a script in order to devise a truthful and believable characterization. Students combine skills from mod 1 with the tools gained from script analysis to present two opposing monologues as their culminating project. These chosen monologues can also serve the student who is looking for material to be used in future, especially if they need performance pieces for college applications.

The final mod, Scene Study, continues the creative process for the actor by adding the element of collaboration. Working in pairs, students utilize all of their collected skills to create believable characters in published scene work. This mod is different each time a student takes it because the experience and learning vary based on the relationship the actor develops with a scene partner and the way in which the collaborative process affects artistic decisions.

A student who takes all or part of this course more than once is challenged to enhance their ability to act from a deeply personal and freely imaginative place. By tackling new and increasingly challenging material, the student continues to gain confidence in their personal process while keeping their skills sharp. It encourages the actor to extend their risk-taking and to make more interesting acting choices in their work.

The first time they take this course, students must take all three mods. In subsequent years, students may repeat any/all of these mods in any order.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none, though 3 credits of an acting course are recommended

Open to: 11, 12

Scene Study for the Director

In this course, advanced acting students shift their analytical/creative lens to that of the director. This course demands a highly interactive, collaborative commitment to the art of theater-making. Students further their script analysis work with the aim of making conceptual choices and guiding actors through the rehearsal process. Shifting from the subjective focus of the actor to the objective view of the director, students address the major elements of a director’s work: analysis, stage composition, visualization, and blocking to form an intentional message and meaning in a scene.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: Advanced Theater Arts: Acting & Directing (3 credits)

Open to: 12

IB Theater: Focus on Acting & Directing

In this two-year course of study, students work both individually and in collaboration to experience the creative process as a way of learning to transform ideas into action through intellectual curiosity and creative thinking. The curriculum is designed to engage students in the value and importance of researching, creating, preparing and presenting, and critically reflecting as means of learning and communicating. As participants in the IB Theater curriculum, students gain a richer understanding of themselves, their personal cultural perspectives, and cultural ideas and practices in the global community.

Both the SL and HL Theater curricula require 6 mods over two years. In addition, all IB Ats students attend the IB Arts Block, which meets for 45 minutes weekly throughout the academic year. In 11th grade, students take all three mods of Theater Arts: Advanced Acting & Directing (ARP410D), as well as a mod specific to 11th grade IB Theater students. (If necessary, the Scene Study mod of ARP410D may be postponed until 12th grade.) In 12th grade, students take Scene Study for the Director (ARP410D)--unless they prefer to take the Scene Study mod of ARP410D at an advanced level--and mod specific to 12th grade IB Theater students.

Students who have not taken an acting course at George School should consult with the instructor about additional preparatory work.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 6.0-6.0

Prerequisite: none, though 3 credits of an acting course are recommended

Open to: 11

Introduction to Theater Design & Production

This mod serves as an introduction to the world of technical theater, giving students the terminology, basic skills, and a beggining understanding of concepts that will become the “toolbox” for students moving on to the Stagecraft, Production, and Design mods. The mod will cover theater terminology, safe usage of the widely used tools, shop safety, basic lighting, carpentry, sound techniques and equipment, and introductory design concepts to further aid in the student understanding of the art.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Theater Design & Production

This three-mod course provides students with experience in backstage and shop safety, production techniques, and the language of technical theatre, and introduces them to principles and techniques of theatrical production design. Students come to understand the collaborative nature of the art of technical theater through active participation building and running the various dance and theater performances in Walton Auditorium.

The first mod of this course is Introduction to Theater Design & Production (ARP420A). The final two mods are dedicated to the work of building and lighting the school’s mainstage theater and dance productions. In these mods, students apply the skills learned in the first mod to become participants in bringing a story to life, as drawings become sets and light plots evolve into lights on stage!

This course may be split over multiple years.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Advanced Theater Design & Production

Students taking Advanced Theater Design & Production for the first time take at least one stagecraft mod, at least one production mod, and a design mod.

The stagecraft mods, in which sets are built and lights are hung, are common to the first-year course and the advanced one. In the production mods—which happen during the final weeks of a performance—students put the finishing touches on the build, focus the lights, and run the show. In the design mod, students learn how to create a stage concept and turn it into production designs for sets, lights, props, costumes, sound, and more, exploring how these elements work independently and in concert to tell a story.

This course may be split over multiple years and students taking the Advanced Theater Design & Production course for a second or third time may choose any combination of design, production, and stagecraft mods.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-6.0

Prerequisite: Theater Design & Production (3 credits)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

IB Theater: Focus on Design & Production

In this two-year course of study, students work both individually and in collaboration to experience the creative process as a way of learning to transform ideas into action through intellectual curiosity and creative thinking. The curriculum is designed to engage students in the value and importance of researching, creating, preparing and presenting, and critically reflecting as means of learning and communicating. As participants in the IB Theater curriculum, students gain a richer understanding of themselves, their personal cultural perspectives, and cultural ideas and practices in the global community.

Both the SL and HL Theater curricula require 6 mods over two years. In addition, all IB Arts students attend the IB Arts Block, which meets for 45 minutes weekly throughout the academic year. In 11th grade, students take both a production mod and a design mod of either Theater Design & Production (ARP420E) or Advanced Theater Design & Production (ARP420K), as well as a mod specific to 11th grade IB Theater students. The remainder of the IB curriculum is comprised of an additional production mod in either 11th or 12th grade, an additional design mod in 12th grade, and a mod specific to 12th grade IB Theater students.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 6.0-6.0

Prerequisite: Introduction to Theater Design and Production (1 credit)

Open to: 11, 12

Theater Performance

Performance is the focus of this term-long course as members of the class participate in a Main Stage production. Shows are supported by the Theater Arts: Design and Production classes and a professional costumer. The goal is for students to demonstrate a range of physical, vocal, and emotional abilities in specific character portrayal. The course meets daily after school, so participants cannot take a sport concurrently but will not be required to take PE in the term of their performance class. Members of the Theater Arts: Design & Production classes may request enrollment in this class if they wish to participate in a leadership role as a member of the production team.

In 2022-23, the Theater Performance class will be held in the fall and spring. These classes are not held during the academic day.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Open to: 9 (winter and spring performances only), 10, 11, 12

Prerequisite: Audition (those who have not taken an acting course at George School should discuss their previous experience with the instructor prior to signing up for an audition)

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Musical Theater

Students explore the various backstage elements of musical theater production in this one-term course. They experience the interdependence of acting, singing, dancing, costuming, lighting, and set design. While the final public performance is a tangible result of a term's work, the course emphasizes the process leading up to the performance. The ideals of ensemble and group support and development are modeled in all that is studied, from the audition process through the final curtain call. Auditions are held in the Fall. The course meets daily after school, so participants cannot take a sport concurrently but will not be required to take PE in the term of their performance class. Members of the Theater Arts: Design & Production classes may request enrollment in this class if they wish to participate in a leadership role as a member of the production team.

In 2022-23, the Musical Theater class will be held in the winter. This class is not held during the academic day.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: Audition

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Art History and AP Art History

The class exposes students to visual art history and provides an opportunity to delve into meaningful research. The course is organized into historical units from prehistoric times to the present. Skills taught include visual analysis, contextual analysis, comparison of artwork, artistic traditions, attribution of unknown work, “visual” art historical interpretations and challenges, and argumentation. As part of the course, students take field trips to art museums in Philadelphia, New York City, and Washington, DC. Students who intend to study an IB visual art or to pursue visual arts at the post-secondary level will benefit particularly from this course, though anyone with an interest in art, history, and research is welcome!

Students taking Art History (ARV160A) and AP Art History (ARV168A) meet at the same time, in the same classroom. Assignments and expectations are differentiated depending on a student's registration.

A summer assignment is required of those who opt for the AP version of the course, and any student who, as of November, is registered for the AP version of the course is required to sit for the AP exam.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: B+ in an English class

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Ceramics

Developing a practical understanding of clay objects while taking an aesthetic approach to ceramics is the primary goal of this course. Students develop skills in centering clay, throwing on the potter’s wheel, trimming, and glazing. Other skills introduced are hand-building with slabs and coils, pinching clay pots, creating small-scale sculpture, and decorating with brushes and glaze pens. Each student’s work is exhibited with a critique at the end of each term. Students are expected to complete between four and ten pieces each term. In addition, they are expected to support classmates, to honor the work of all students in the class, and to contribute to classroom cleanup and maintenance.

IB diploma candidates who would like to take ceramics as their primary IB visual art, but do not have previous experience in ceramics, should enroll in Intermediate Ceramics (ARV210D) rather than this class. During the first term, they will follow a different curriculum than those who have previous experience on the wheel.

Students must progress though the mods in sequential order if they take more than one mod, though the progression may span multiple years.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Intermediate Ceramics

Students work to expand their knowledge of clay as an art medium and to improve the skills learned in Ceramics (ARV210A). Projects are more complex and require more time. Assignments might include covered pots, teapots, cups and saucers, plates, dinnerware sets and slab-built boxes. There is a great deal of flexibility within the assignments, and some might include a written or presentation component. Craftsmanship, creativity, and an appreciation for the elements that are inherent in well-made functional pottery are emphasized in this class.

IB diploma candidates who would like to take ceramics as their primary IB visual art, but do not have previous experience in ceramics, should enroll in this class rather than ARV210A. During the first term, they will be following a different curriculum than those who have previous experience on the wheel.

Students taking more than 1 credit must progress though the mods in sequential order, though the progression may span multiple years.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Ceramics (3 credits, taken at George School)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Advanced Ceramics

This course is designed to help students build on and perfect skills learned in previous courses, with an increased focus on artisanship, creativity, and design. Students employ a variety of slips, underglazes, and glazes, and increasingly sophisticated application techniques in creating both functional and sculptural works. In addition, students explore some ceramic art history and experiment with different firing techniques.

Students taking more than 1 credit must progress through the mods in sequential order, though the progression may span multiple years.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Intermediate Ceramics (3 credits)

Open to: 11, 12

Senior Projects in Ceramics

In this course, students with extensive experience in the George School ceramics program work to develop a coherent body of independent work with periodic critiques to discuss progress, content, and process. In addition, they experiment with advanced techniques such as making small editions utilizing slip-casting in plaster molds and utilizing a 3D printer to print with clay slip. This course may be taken as an IB Visual Art. Please see the IB Visual Arts description.

Students taking more than 1 credit must progress though the mods in sequential order, though the progression may span multiple years.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Advanced Ceramics (3 credits)

Open to: 12

Materials and Methods of Sculpture

Sculpture students are introduced to materials and methods of working with three-dimensional forms, exploring the elements, principles, and aesthetic concepts integral to three-dimensional design, and to consider relationships between concept, process, materials, tools, and technical skills. This course gives a historical overview of sculpture and covers various aspects of 3-dimensional works, such as the production of simple and complex forms, subtractive work, contextual considerations, and found objects. Students are introduced to hand and power tools along with safe shop practices. Mediums and methods include plaster, clay, stone, metal, wood, casting techniques, wire forms, and welding. Regular assessment promotes a solid theoretical and practical/technical understanding of the process of making sculptural forms.

Students taking more than 1 credit must progress through the mods in sequential order, though the progression may span multiple years.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Ceramics (3 credits), Woodworking (3 credits), or enrollment in an IB Visual Arts course

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Advanced Sculpture

Advanced sculpture further develops skills in spatial relationships, utilizing different materials, and safe shop practices that were introduced in Materials and Methods of Sculpture (ARV230A). The application of these ideas is emphasized through collaborative work, site-specific installations, the understanding of the language of sculpture and documentation of process. A further exploration of three-dimensional form-making enables the student to develop artistic expression and a greater understanding of contemporary sculpture. Emphasis may include permanent/nonpermanent materials: clay, plaster, metal, wax, fabric, wood, stone, or found objects. Both additive and subtractive methods are employed. The first two mods specifically address the technical aspects of the discipline and the development of a conceptual language. This understanding provides the groundwork for independent projects in the third mod.

Students must progress though the mods in sequential order if they take more than one mod, though the progression may span multiple years.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Materials and Methods of Sculpture (2 credits)

Open to: 11, 12

Painting and Drawing

In this course, students build a foundation in basic painting and drawing. Various concepts, materials, and techniques involving painting and drawing are assigned and explored. Drawing is used as both a means of preparation and as an independent mode of expression. Students are also introduced to the fundamentals of painting. Through assignments, students form an understanding of the relationships between color, form, shape, texture, value, and composition. Effort and conscientious completion of all requirements are considered for the assessment of assignments.

Students taking more than 1 credit must progress though the mods in sequential order, though the progression may span multiple years. The third mod is optional.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Advanced Painting and Drawing

The focus of this course is directed towards creating a unique body of work in painting and drawing. In class, students work on strengthening their painting and drawing skills while developing a unique and personal vision. Students are encouraged to explore and develop their personal interests and ideas. Throughout the course, students are introduced to a variety of sources and materials to facilitate their exploration of different media, methods, processes, and possibilities to create art. The instructor provides brief lectures and conduct demonstrations as needed. In addition, the instructor offers individual guidance through one-on-one discussion with each student as projects are developed. Students are required to maintain a sketchbook and work outside of class.

The third mod of this course is optional.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Painting and Drawing (2 credits)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Advanced Studio: Painting & Drawing

The focus of this course is developing and completing a comprehensive body of work consisting of paintings and drawings that address a centralized theme with a written artist statement. Throughout the course, students advance and evolve their aesthetic, concept, personal ideas, and technical skills. Students are responsible for developing their portfolios by creating works that reflect their own individual voices. The instructor gives brief lectures and conducts demonstrations as needed. In addition, the instructor offers individual guidance through one-on-one discussion with each student as projects are developed. The development of the student’s body of work culminates in an independent exhibition at George School. An ability to work independently on art projects is essential in this class. Students are required to maintain a sketchbook and to work outside of class. Prior experience with a wide range of art materials is expected to showcase a quality portfolio.

This course may be taken more than once. In any year in which they take this course, students must register for at least 2 credits. Those who want more terms to develop a comprehensive body of work are welcome to register for more.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-7.0

Prerequisite: Advanced Painting and Drawing (2 credits)

Open to: 11, 12

AP Art & Design: Drawing

The AP Studio Art Exam consists of a comprehensive portfolio that addresses two components: Sustained Investigation, and Selected Works. In the Sustained Investigation section, students will develop an inquiry to guide their creative process. In this section, students will submit fifteen digital images that demonstrate their investigation and works of art guided by their inquiry. In Selected works, five actual works of art that demonstrate the highest quality will be submitted by mail to the college board. An ability to work independently on art projects is essential in this class. Students are required to maintain documentation of their work outside of class. Prior experience with a wide range of art materials is expected to showcase a quality portfolio. AP students are required to take an AP mod in the fourth or fifth term.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Departmental approval

Open to: 12

Photography

Basic analog photography concepts, processes, and techniques lead students toward mastery of 35mm camera operation, exposure, and darkroom procedures. In addition to technical skills, students explore the aesthetics of photography through critiques, presentations, and written assignments. Student work is entered in regional and international photography contests and exhibited throughout the year in the George School galleries. Assessment is based on the quality of work, effort, and timeliness. Students are provided with a 35mm manual camera for this course, and projects are shot outside of class time. Film and chemicals are provided; all other materials are provided for a $100 fee. If additional materials are needed, they may be purchased in the school store.

Students must progress through the mods in sequential order if they take more than one mod, though the progression may span multiple years.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Advanced Photography

Technical skills acquired in Photography (ARV410A) are further refined in this course. Experimental techniques, ranging from historic and antique processes to digital imaging, are introduced (and, for those taking Advanced Photography 2 or 3), explored in more depth. Students experiment with studio lighting, digital imaging, non-silver processes, hand-coloring, toning, and mixed-media. Participation in class critiques, during which images created by students are analyzed for aesthetic, conceptual, and theoretical concerns, is required. The third mod, which is optional, is focused on portfolio development as students work to develop their individual voices through the photographic medium. Student work is entered in regional and international photography contests and exhibited throughout the year in the George School galleries. Since the curriculum changes every year, students are encouraged to take this course more than once. Materials for this course may be purchased in the school store.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-3.0

Prerequisite (for Advanced Photo 1): Photography (3 credits, B)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

AP Art & Design: Photography

In this course, students prepare for the AP Art & Design exam while participating in the Advanced Photography 2 (ARP410E) or Advanced Photography 3 (ARP410F) class.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Advanced Photography 1 (3 credits, A)

Open to: 12

Digital Imaging & Design

The art of digital imaging through the use of Adobe Photoshop is explored in this course. Students create images with 35mm Digital SLR cameras that they may borrow from the school. In the first mod, each student designs and publishes a hard-cover book based on their summer project. In the second mod, students learn to edit and manipulate their images in Adobe Photoshop by participating in hands-on demonstrations and completing technical exercises. In the third mod, which is optional, students develop a cohesive portfolio. Participation in class critiques--during which, images created by students are analyzed for aesthetic, conceptual, and theoretical concerns--is required. Paper and ink are provided for a fee of $75 per mod. Student work is entered in regional and international photography contests and exhibited throughout the year in the George School galleries.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Photography (3 credits, B)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Advanced Digital Imaging & Design

The Advanced Digital Imaging and Design courses provide students with the opportunity to refine and extend the Photoshop skills introduced in Digital Imaging and Design (ARV420A). As in that course, the first mod is devoted to producing a book based on the summer project, the second mod is dedicated to increasing the student's expertise with Photoshop, and the third mod is focused on portfolio development.

Students must progress through the mods in sequential order if they take more than one mod, though the progression may span multiple years.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite (for Advanced Digital Imaging 1): Digital Imaging and Design (3 credits, B)

Open to: 11, 12

AP Art & Design: Digital Imaging

In this course, students prepare for the AP Art & Design exam while participating in the Advanced Digital Imaging & Design 1 (ARP420D) or Advanced Digital Imaging & Design 2 (ARP420E) class.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Digital Imaging & Design (3 credits, A)

Open to: 12

Graphic Design

In this course, students explore graphic design as a form of visual communication connecting type, image, form, and color. Projects encourage students to consider the interplay among these elements and help students to develop the fundamental skills needed to work within the powerhouse of Adobe Suite. Student work is entered in regional contests and exhibited throughout the year in the George School galleries. Past projects have included: designing a magazine layout, T-shirt design, designing an album cover, cubist-style self-portrait, film poster, and social-awareness poster.

Students must progress through the mods in sequential order if they take more than one mod, though the progression may span multiple years.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Advanced Graphic Design

In the Advanced Graphic Design courses, students continue to expand and refine the skill set they began to develop in Graphic Design (ARV510A) and they work more independently on project planning, problem-solving, and evaluating and revising their work. In addition, students explore the visual aesthetics of graphic design through critiques, presentations, and written assignments. There is a focus on portfolio development as students work to develop their individual voices through the medium of graphic design. Student work is entered in regional contests and exhibited throughout the year in the George School galleries. The goals and tasks of this course change for students individually,

The mods may be taken in any order and the course may span multiple years. Students may take this course multiple times.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite (for Advanced Graphic Design 1): Graphic Design (3 credits, B-)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

AP Art & Design: Graphic Design

In this course, students prepare for the AP Art & Design exam while participating in the Advanced Graphic Design 2 (ARV510E) or Advanced Graphic Design 3 (ARV510F) class.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Advanced Graphic Design 1 (3 credits, A)

Open to: 12

Woodworking & Design

In this course, students learn how to work with and maintain a variety of traditional hand woodworking tools. Each student designs and builds a small box using traditional joinery techniques. Students also learn to use power tools safely and to design and build an original piece of furniture. The class includes trips to museums, local studios, and the Philadelphia Furniture Show. Students have opportunities to exhibit their work in area shows. We will also work with a local sawmill operator with a portable sawmill to continue the long tradition of milling, stacking, and drying wood from fallen campus trees for use in the program.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Advanced Woodworking & Design

Students in this course will apply the skills they learned in the previous year and continue to pursue the craft of designing and building original furniture. Drawings, scale model making, and in some cases the use of sketch up and other online drawing programs are used to help pull the design into a working form. Students then source the appropriate materials for the piece and the building process will begin. By the end of the course, students have finished their piece of furniture. Students who complete their projects early are encouraged to continue to explore the rich options of working with wood by taking on smaller projects that use techniques such as bowl and spindle turning, texture and color use, carving, and upcycling to name a few. Students may take this course multiple times.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite (for Advanced Woodworking & Design): Woodworking & Design (3 credits)

Open to: 11, 12

Functional Art & Design

“Occupying that tenuous space between fine art and the everyday, functional art refers?to aesthetic objects that serve utilitarian purposes. The genre is remarkably inclusive: it encompasses everything from furniture and lighting to dishes and even books.” - Alex Allenchey

This course is about creative problem-solving in three dimensions as students consider the design and construction challenges and opportunities that arise when combining fine art and function. Students design, sculpt, cast, carve, and fabricate one-of-a-kind objects in wood, metal, and mixed media, and, while working in the wood and sculpture studios, use emerging technologies to express original ideas. Students are introduced to techniques such as welding, subtractive carving, molding, casting, steam bending, and laser cutting. In designing and building their own projects, students focus on the use of recycled and/or sustainable materials.

(This course will not be offered in 2022-23.)

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

 

Prerequisite: Ceramics (1 credit) or Woodworking & Design (1 credit)

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

IB Visual Arts

IB Visual Arts is a two-year course of study during which students work in multiple media while selecting one of the following as their primary visual art: Ceramics, Graphic Design, Painting and Drawing, Photography, or Sculpture. Students develop analytical skills in problem-solving and divergent thinking while working towards technical proficiency and confidence as artists, and while learning to challenge their own creative and cultural expectations and boundaries. In addition to exploring and comparing visual arts from different perspectives and in different contexts, students are expected to engage in, experiment with, and critically reflect upon a wide range of contemporary practices and media.

The instructor of the student’s primary art supervises the student’s IB work, the major components of which are the Comparative Study, the Process Portfolio, and the Exhibition. In the Comparative Study, students discover, explore, and compare artwork to enrich their knowledge of art. In the Process Portfolio, students explore and research an artistic theme of their choice while documenting their creative processes. The Exhibition component, completed by March of senior year, is a display of the student’s work.

The HL sequence requires 6 mods over two years, while the SL sequence requires 5 mods over two years. In either sequence, students take two IB-specific mods (one in 11th grade and one in 12th grade) in which they work at the intersection of their primary art and other visual arts disciplines. All IB Visual Arts students, HL or SL, also take at least two mods of their primary art in 11th grade and at least one mod of their primary art in 12th grade, For 12th grade HL students, the second discipline-specific mod can be in their primary art or in any of the IB visual arts disciplines: Ceramics, Graphic Design, Painting and Drawing, Photography, or Sculpture.

In addition, all IB visual arts students attend the IB Arts Block, which meets for 45 minutes weekly throughout the academic year, and attend five IB field trips scheduled on Sundays throughout the year.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 5.0-5.0

Prerequisite: 2 credits in visual arts taken at George School or permission of department

Open to: 11, 12

South Africa: Art, Ecology & Social Justice

This course is cross-listed as MUL990S (Extradisciplinary) and SCI990S (Science). See the course description for MUL990S (Extradisciplinary) in the Extradisciplinary section of the catalog.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Biology

This course investigates ecology, evolution, biochemistry, cell biology, Mendelian genetics, and diversity of life. Concepts presented in lectures are illustrated using demonstrations, activities, and experiments. Students will hone their abilities to articulate their knowledge clearly and concisely, both orally and in writing. Lab reports will include data collection and analysis of experimental outcomes; students should be able to apply basic algebraic skills to these analyses. Students may be assigned supplemental readings in addition to readings from the textbook.

The first mod of this course (which is the same as the first mod of Intensive Biology) focuses on Evolution and Ecology; the second focuses on Cell Biology and Biochemistry.

This course fulfills the biology graduation requirement.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-2.0

Prerequisite: Chemistry or Intensive Chemistry

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Intensive Biology

This course investigates ecology, evolution, biochemistry, molecular biology, bioenergetics, cell biology, Mendelian and non-Mendelian genetics, and diversity of life. Concepts with increasing complexity and abstraction will be tackled. Students should expect to handle large amounts of material and must be able to articulate their knowledge clearly and concisely, both orally and in writing. Lab experiments will regularly be conducted in class, followed by assigned lab reports. Students should be able to apply algebraic skills and statistical analyses to their data. Students may be assigned technical and complex supplemental readings, in addition to readings from the textbook. This course is the required prerequisite course for IB Biology SL, IB Biology HL, and AP Biology; exceptions to this must be approved by the department.
The first mod of this course (which is the same as the first mod of Intensive Biology) focuses on Evolution and Ecology; the second focuses on Cell Biology and Biochemistry, and the third mod focuses on Molecular Biology.
This course fulfills the biology graduation requirement.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Chemistry (A) or Intensive Chemistry (B+)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Biotechnology

To understand topics in molecular biology this course focuses primarily on implementing various lab techniques, including bacterial transformation, DNA extraction, restriction enzyme digest, gel electrophoresis, PCR, protein purification, and possibly DNA barcoding. Students investigate topics including DNA and protein structure, DNA replication, Mendelian genetics, GMO’s, plasmid mapping, gene regulation, and protein synthesis. Students learn how these techniques are applied in the fields of forensics, immunology, the food industry, agriculture, and pharmaceuticals. This elective class is a prerequisite for AP and IB Biology courses.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: 2 credits of Biology

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Marine Biology

This course investigates marine habitats including oceans, bays, estuaries, and intertidal zones, focusing primarily on the eastern United States. Students will learn about marine ecosystems and the organisms that inhabit them, with noted emphasis on the strategies and adaptations that enhance survival. Attention will be paid to factors threatening marine environments including pollution, climate change, urban development, and tourism. Students will learn through direct instruction, group work, scientific investigations, and field studies of marine environments. Overnight trips are likely to Barnegat Bay and Island Beach State Park. Trip fees could be applied to cover costs.
Students who enroll in this course are expected to work collaboratively and cooperatively with classmates. They should anticipate making presentations to the class and conducting a marine biology research project. Outdoor work along the shoreline is expected and students need to be able to walk, dig, carry, and lift materials.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: 1 credit of biology

Open to: 11, 12

IB HL Biology

This two-year sequence prepares students for the IB Higher Level (HL) Biology exam. Lecture-format classes are combined with frequent experiments to investigate all major topics in the IB HL Biology curriculum. Information is covered in detail and at a fast pace. Nightly homework typically includes readings in the textbook, writing a lab report, studying for quizzes & tests, or completing analysis of scientific studies with data-based questions. The course includes an IB-style group research project. Students also design and conduct a fully independent biology research project which is required as part of the IB’s internal assessment. Students are required to complete a summer assignment in preparation for this class. This 5-mod course should be split over junior and senior years.

Taking the external IB HL Biology exam is a requirement of this course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 5.0-5.0

Prerequisite: 3 credits of Chemistry (A) or Intensive Chemistry (B+), 3 credits of Intensive Biology (B+) and Biotechnology

Satisfactory performance on a placement test is required for those students whose prerequisite biology class was taken somewhere other than George School.

Open to: 11

AP Biology

This course prepares students for the AP Biology exam. Students investigate evolution, biochemistry, metabolism, and molecular biology. Topics are covered in detail and at a fast pace. Nightly homework typically includes reading a chapter in a college-level textbook, writing a lab report, or writing an essay. Occasional evening and/or weekend labs are required in order to fulfill AP lab expectations. Most labs are inquiry-based, requiring students to develop their scientific skills and work more independently. Students are required to complete a summer assignment in preparation for the class.

Taking the external AP Biology exam is a requirement of this course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: 3 credits of Chemistry (A) or Intensive Chemistry (B+), 3 credits of Intensive Biology (B+) and Biotechnology
Prerequisite for '22-23: Intensive Biology (B+) and Intensive Chemistry (B+) or Chemistry (A)

Open to: 11, 12

Chemistry

The major concepts of inorganic chemistry are covered in this course. These include properties of matter, atomic structure, molecular bonding, typical chemical reactions, the mole, stoichiometry, acids and bases, gases, and solutions. The study of these topics requires an understanding of basic algebraic concepts and mathematical calculations to demonstrate quantitative principles.

Learning is supported by weekly lab activities and demonstrations. Students are expected to read and practice problems daily. Frequent written lab assignments are required. Students develop skills in data collection and analysis and are taught to use software tools to support this work.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9, 10

Intensive Chemistry

The major concepts of inorganic chemistry are covered in this course. These include properties of matter, atomic structure, molecular bonding, typical chemical reactions, the mole, stoichiometry, acids and bases, gases, and solutions. The study of these topics requires a facility with single-variable algebra and mathematical calculations to demonstrate quantitative principles.

Learning is supported by weekly lab activities and demonstrations. Students are expected to read and practice problems daily. Frequent written lab assignments are required. Students develop skills in data collection and analysis and are taught to use software tools to support this work.

Intensive Chemistry students take the same first mod as Chemistry students, followed by two mods of Intensive Chemistry. Placement into the faster-paced, more mathematically focused Intensive Chemistry mods is based on students' expressed interest and performance on a common summative assessment toward the end of the first mod.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9, 10

Advanced Topics in Chemistry

In this course, students learn about oxidation-reduction reactions, equilibrium in the context of stoichiometry, mathematical aspects of reaction kinetics, and the thermochemical concepts of enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy. Students apply knowledge from their previous chemistry course to these more complex contexts.

Students learn through experiments, engaging activities, and out-of-class assignments. Students also design their own laboratory investigation. After successfully completing this 1-mod course, students may choose to enroll in AP Chemistry.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: Chemistry (A-) or Intensive Chemistry (B)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

AP Chemistry

This course prepares students for the AP chemistry exam. Students are assumed to have a strong understanding of topics taught in a first-year chemistry course. In addition to studying foundational concepts in more detail, students learn acid-base chemistry, spectroscopy techniques, relationships between macroscopic and microscopic properties, kinetics, equilibrium, oxidation-reduction, electrochemistry, and standard lab procedures. This is a fast-paced course with a significant laboratory component, and students are expected to design some of their own lab procedures and learn actively during all class sessions. Students are required to complete a substantial summer assignment in preparation for this course.

Taking the external AP Chemistry exam is a requirement of this course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Intensive Chemistry (B) or Chemistry (A-) and Advanced Topics in Chemistry (B)
Prerequisite for '22-'23: Intensive Chemistry (B) or Chemistry (A-)
Satisfactory performance on a placement test is required for those students whose prerequisite chemistry class was taken somewhere other than George School.

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Chinese 1

This first year course in Mandarin Chinese introduces Chinese systems of Pinyin Romanization, basic Chinese characters, and basic sentence structures. Oral/aural communication and Chinese cultural context are emphasized. Reading and writing are introduced from the beginning of the course with a goal of mastering two hundred characters by the end of the year. This course develops conversational, reading, and writing skills at a sentence level, while cultivating cultural awareness through a highly communicative and dynamic approach.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Chinese 2

This course begins with a review of key concepts and structures from Chinese 1. Oral/aural communication continues to be emphasized. Short reading selections and basic sentence structures will be expanded from the previous year with a goal of masterung four hundred characters. Students begin to develop short paragraph writing skills on familiar topics. This course promotes the skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through a student-centered approach.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Chinese 1 (C-)

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Chinese 3

This course begins with a review of key vocabulary and sentence structures from Chinese 2 and continues to develop students’ listening, speaking, reading and writing skills by introducing more complex sentence structures. Students start to apply the vocabulary and sentence structures they have accumulated to compose short essays. More supplementary media and reading materials will also be added to encourage students to explore and understand Chinese culture.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Chinese 2 (C-)

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Chinese Society & Culture

This module provides students an opportunity to continue sharpening their Chinese language skills, especially oral skills, while at the same time broadening their knowledge of contemporary Chinese society and culture. A wide range of topics such as family relationships, the urban and rural divide, and social justice and more are discussed in this course. In addition to reading and discussing articles that involve social and cultural issues, students watch selected Chinese TV shows and movies to deepen their understanding of Chinese society and culture. All students who have reached Chinese level 3 proficiency are welcomed to select this fun and culturally rich module.

(This course will not be offered in 2022-23.)

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: Chinese 3 (C) or Chinese level 3 proficiency

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Chinese 4

Building on the fundamentals established in earlier courses, students in this course are introduced to a variety of topics including personal relationships, education, community, food health, holidays, and travel through a content-based and immersive curriculum. The focus is on reading more extensive articles, writing different types of texts, refining interpersonal communication skills, and broadening the student’s cultural understanding. Videos, Chinese websites, and other media are employed to reinforce students' language skills.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Chinese 3 (B-)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

IB SL Chinese ab initio

In this course, students read authentic texts on a variety of topics and compose in a variety of different formats including notices, advertisements, blogs, and speeches in Chinese.

Ab initio students take an IB Chinese preparation mod in 12th grade, together with either Chinese 4 or Advanced Chinese (CHI500), depending on their level of proficiency. For those students in Advanced Chinese, the second mod of Advanced Chinese is optional but recommended.

Students in this course will usually take the IB Chinese ab initio exam.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 4.0-6.0

Prerequisite: Chinese 3 (B-)

Open to: 11, 12

Advanced Chinese

The goal of Advanced Chinese is to take students to the next level in their proficiency. Students interact much more with authentic materials—both written and audio, from literature to culture—and are expected to be even more vocal, making presentations, debates, and leading the class in discussions surrounding these materials and topics. In terms of producing Chinese, students explore different and more sophisticated ways of expressing themselves and learn to use more advanced structures, particularly in their speaking and writing. Advanced Chinese can be taken multiple times.

There are 2 mods specific to this course. Students who would like 3 credits in the course should select Chinese Society as the third mod.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Chinese 4 (B-)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

IB SL Chinese B

In this course, students read authentic texts on a variety of topics and compose in a variety of different formats including notices, advertisements, blogs, and speeches in Chinese.

This course consists of 3 mods of Chinese 4 (CHI400A), 2 mods of Advanced Chinese (CHI500) and 1 mod specific to IB Chinese preparation. The IB module will help students expand the topics they have learned in previous courses, while helping them sharpen the language skills to prepare for the IB SL Chinese B exam. Advanced Chinese and the IB Chinese mod must be taken in the year the student is sitting for the IB SL Chinese exam.

Students who register for this course are required to take the IB SL Chinese B exam.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-6.0

Prerequisite: Chinese 3 (B-)

Open to: 11, 12

English 9

This course centers on the theme of characters on journeys. Of particular interest are those who are undergoing the transition from youth to maturity. Readings in this course encompasses narrative, drama, and non-fiction texts. Works often include J.D. Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye, Shakespeare’s The Taming of the Shrew, selected short stories, articles on current events, and excerpts from Forty Model Essays. Students examine the various ways in which young people in literature negotiate this transition, weighing dependence and independence, family and friends, duty and passion, self-possession and love. They also explore these tensions in their own writing through descriptive, narrative, analytical, and personal essays and presentations. Additionally, the course covers a core group of topics in vocabulary, grammar, and mechanics. As a culminating project, students compile a portfolio showcasing their best writing.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9

English 10

This course centers on the theme of individuals in societies, celebrating, exploring, and analyzing the power of language and literature to communicate meaning and experience. Of particular interest are group dynamics, government systems, and an individual’s role within them. Readings in this course will encompass narrative, drama, and non-fiction texts. Authors often include Shakespeare, Hughes, Miller, Shelley, and Hurston. Students work to find their voice by exploring ideas and opinions in their own writing through descriptive, narrative, and analytical writing, editorials, personal essays, discussion, and presentations. Additionally, the course covers a core group of topics in vocabulary, grammar, and mechanics. Learning to connect the experiences and ideas raised in the literature to the real world is a central part of the course. Through discussion and debate, students develop their ability to inquire, question, synthesize, and argue. Students' independent thinking grows through creative and critical writing and passage analysis.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 10

AP English Language & Composition

This course is organized around the theme of conversations in non-fiction. It celebrates, explores, and analyzes the power of language and literature to communicate meaning and experience. Texts are examined from the premise that there is not one ultimate version of reality or truth but rather that language provides an imaginative, artistic, and technical entrée into the lives and minds of people from all walks of life. The texts we study are both broad and intensive. Students examine the ideas, experiences, and points of view presented in various texts in relation to each other. Learning to connect the experiences and ideas raised in the literature to the real world is a central part of the course.

Students who enroll in this course must sit for the AP English Language and Composition exam.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: A- or better in the second semester of Literature and Composition 1 (2021-22) and permission of the department.

Open to: 10

English 11

This course furthers students’ understanding that while literature is considered a product of the time and culture within which it was written, it can also reveal universal understandings and transcendent beliefs that unify human existence and culture. Students learn that writers are often in communication with writing and writers of previous times, creating a discourse across time. Students examine the various roles literature plays in society and the nature of the knowledge acquired through literature. Through reflection and inquiry, students examine how their own experiences influence the way that they understand and respond to what they read. Students are expected to participate in class discussions every day, weighing various points of view, synthesizing ideas in relation to each other, and ultimately forming an opinion of their own.

Written and oral assignments are both creative and critical in their implementation and process, demanding an ever-increasing appreciation of the choices writers make in their work. These assignments take students through the process of gaining feedback, editing, and revising. Each mod is a self-defined unit covering an aspect of World Literature, focusing on the skills of close reading, inquiry, writing, and speaking.

There are two core mods that are unique to this course. For the third mod, students can choose from any of the following:

Creative Writing: Focus on Style (ENG510C)
Creative Writing: Focus on the Novel (ENG510F)
Creative Writing: Focus on the Screenplay (ENG510K)
Exploration of Memoir (ENG520A)
Autobiographical Writing (ENG520K)
Shakespeare in the 21st Century (ENG530C) (This course will not be offered in 2022-23.)
Encountering the Holocaust through Literature (ENG540C)
Science and Literature (ENG550C)
Being Human: Intro to Philosophy (ENG650A)

In addition, the English course work that is part of the immersive courses Vergil's Aeneid (ENG930R) and Transformative Justice (ENG980X) can be used as the third mod of this course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11

English 12/World Literature 2

In this course, students examine classic and contemporary world texts through literature, essays, and film. Students learn to evaluate secondary sources and engage in deeper readings of the texts in preparation for the complexity and rigors of college analysis. Students explore thematic connections that run through classic and modern works from differing cultural traditions. Among the authors recently studied are Achebe, Atwood, Camus, Carver, Conrad, Ishiguro, Kafka, O’Connor, Olen Butler, Orwell, Shakespeare, and Sophocles. Students are expected to think independently, do close readings, and articulate their interpretations maturely and thoughtfully. Major assignments include oral presentations, critical commentaries, and essays that further develop the analytical skills acquired in the junior year.

There are two core mods that are unique to this course. For the third mod, students can choose from any of the following:

Creative Writing: Focus on Style (ENG510C)
Creative Writing: Focus on the Novel (ENG510F)
Creative Writing: Focus on the Screenplay (ENG510K)
Exploration of Memoir (ENG520A)
Autobiographical Writing (ENG520K)
Shakespeare in the 21st Century (ENG530C) (This course will not be offered in 2022-23.)
Encountering the Holocaust through Literature (ENG540C)
Science and Literature (ENG550C)
Being Human: Intro to Philosophy (ENG650A)

In addition, the English course work that is part of the immersive courses Vergil's Aeneid (ENG930R) and Transformative Justice (ENG980X) can be used as the third mod of this course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: an 11th grade English course (3 credits)

Open to: 12

IB HL English A: Literature

The first year of this course emphasizes a student’s ability to respond independently to works they have not seen before. Students work toward written and oral commentaries which pay particular attention to the writer’s craft. This course furthers students’ understanding that while literature is considered a product of the time and culture within which it was written, we strive also to look for universal understandings or transcendent beliefs that unify human existence or human culture. Students learn that writers are often in communication with writing and writers of previous times, creating a discourse across time. The course examines the various roles that literature then plays in society and the nature of the knowledge acquired through literature. Through reflection and inquiry, students examine how their own experiences influence the way that they understand and respond to what they read. Students are expected to participate in class discussions every day, weighing various points of view, synthesizing ideas in relation to each other, and ultimately forming an opinion of their own. Written and oral assignments are both creative and critical in their implementation and process, demanding an ever-increasing appreciation of the choices writers make in their work. These assignments take students through the process of gaining feedback, editing, and revising. Each term is a self-defined unit covering an aspect of world literature, focusing on the skills of close reading, inquiry, writing, and speaking. Skills practiced include close reading and analysis, introductory work with secondary sources, discussion, oral presentation, and formal analytical writing. Assessments include reading checks/quizzes/journals, a formal IB HL essay, and practice with IB guided literary analysis and IB comparative essays.

In the second year of this course students are expected to formulate complex and nuanced interpretations of literature independently and to challenge the interpretations of others. Excellent reading comprehension and attention to detail are assumed, as is the ability to move quickly to abstractions. Skills practiced will include close reading and analysis, introductory work with secondary sources, discussion, oral presentation, and formal analytical writing and assessments will include reading checks/quizzes/journals, a formal IB individual oral, and practice with IB guided literary analysis and IB comparative essays. Among the authors recently studied are Achebe, Conrad, Greene, Kafka, Heaney, Ishiguro, Shakespeare, and Szymborska.

This two-year course fulfills the requirements of the IB English A: Literature HL curriculum and is made up of two IB-specific mods in 11th grade, one elective mod in 11th grade, and three IB-specific mods in 12th grade. See the English 11 (ENG400A) description for a list of the elective mods.

Students enrolled in this course must sit for the IB English A: Literature HL exam in 12th grade.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 6.0-6.0

Prerequisite: Participation in the IB Diploma Program OR AP English Language & Composition OR departmental permission and a final grade of B+ in either Literature & Composition 2 or English 10

Open to: 11, 12

IB HL World Literature 2/IB HL World Literature 2: Writer’s Focus

This course fulfills the expectations of the IB curriculum and prepares students for both the IB and AP exams. Students are expected to formulate complex and nuanced interpretations of literature independently and to question and challenge the interpretations of others. Excellent reading comprehension and attention to detail are assumed, as is the ability to move quickly to abstractions. Among the authors recently studied are Achebe, Austen, Chaucer, Conrad, Dostoyevsky, Greene, Kafka, the Romantic poets, Shakespeare, Sophocles, and Voltaire.

The Writer’s Focus version of the course considers literature with a view towards developing a more fully articulated understanding of the art and the craft of writing poetry, drama, and prose fiction. In addition to literary discussion, Writer's Focus classes feature workshop-style critiquing sessions. Participants in the Writer's Focus class should be committed creative writers who are comfortable having their work read aloud and critiqued by peers.

Students enrolled in this course must sit for the IB HL exam.

(This course will be offered for the final time in 2022-23. It will be replaced by IB HL English A: Literature.)

Open to: 12

Prerequisite:
1. Participation in the IB Diploma program OR
2. IB HL World Literature 1: Focus on the Americas OR
3. Successful performance in a passage analysis AND a final grade of B+ in World Literature 1: Focus on the Americas AND teacher recommendation

Open to: 12

Creative Writing: Focus on Style

In 1947, French writer Raymond Queneau, a member of OULIPO, a literary group, published Exercises de Style, a collection of 99 versions of the same story. In this course, we find inspiration in adventurous literary works like Queneau’s, study literary movements of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, write rigorously across genres, and experiment with form. Students spend class time workshopping their writing, reading and analyzing literature, and responding to creative prompts. Students write independently every day. This is a writing-intensive course. The final project is a creative work that demonstrates an engagement with experimentation and an understanding of hybridity as a postcolonial form of expression.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Creative Writing: Focus on the Novel

National Novel Writing Month, or NaNoWriMo, originated in 1999 and is a month-long program that encourages people to write a novel in the month of November, hitting a particular word count. Students will enroll in the NaNoWriMo student program, which allows them to set their own unique word count goals and start their month of writing at any point in the year. There are also activities and writing communities to engage in all year long through the program.

The NaNoWriMo elective at George School aims to cultivate a community of creative writers with a passion for the written word. This is the perfect class for the student who has many ideas to express but never finds the place to do it in formal educational settings. The class completes a week of brainstorming and prewriting, followed by a 30-day novel writing contest using the NaNoWriMo program and also engaging with their online community. Writers set goals and work as a group to celebrate and provide feedback on each other’s work. The goal is to write every day, take risks, try new techniques, and celebrate language (not necessarily to have the best final product).

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Creative Writing: Focus on the Screenplay

This course is an introduction to the elements of theme, plot, character, and dialogue in dramatic writing for film. Emphasis is placed on telling a story through action and character development. The difference between the literary and visual medium is explored through individual writing projects and group analysis. The course helps students develop a synopsis, film treatment, and drafts for a short theatrical screenplay including: theme, plot, character, mise-en-scene and utilization of cinematic elements. Each student should, by the end of the term, have at short screenplay that they can turn into a film. Films and their corresponding screenplays are required reading for every class, and students also become acquainted with how the business of selling and producing one's screenplay actually happens in Hollywood and independently.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Autobiographical Writing

Writers are oft tasked to “write what you know.” Presumably, we know ourselves well. Yet, the act of personal essay writing through memoir, autobiography, and that most beloved of assignments, the college essay frequently tests that assumption. What do we truly know of ourselves? How much is yet to be discovered, whether one is a senior contemplating their college years or a senior contemplating their twilight years? And how do we explain it to others when we can be such mysteries to those who know us best, even, at times, to ourselves?

This course interrogates the first person narrative voice as both technical exercise and creative discovery. Through analysis of non-fiction text selections ranging from Sei Shonagon’s 10th c. Pillow Book to more contemporary essay selections by writers such as David Sedaris and from consideration of Montaigne’s 16th c. popularization of the essay to more contemporary works, the course examines the form of the personal narrative.

A secondary goal of this module is to offer clear instruction and guidance for the development of a student’s college essay as well as structured space in which to write it. Students work on topic generation, learn about the “dos” and “don’ts” of this assignment, and consider a range of prompts, including those for supplemental essays. Additionally, they evaluate sample essays and learn the stylistic strategies and gambits that best suit their own work and narrative voice. Most importantly, they concentrate on drafting and the revision process to produce a polished essay, one ready for submission in the application process.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 12

Shakespeare in the 21st Century

Sex, death, and pirates—and those are just a few of the elements in Hamlet. Shakespeare is classical literature and often considered high brow, elitist, and even inaccessible. But it’s also bawdy, irreverent, and just plain funny, even for the Snapchat crowd. Interested in learning about minced oaths and how to “talk dirty” in Shakespearean language? Want to see the original example of “ghosting” someone?

This one-mod course offers an in-depth study of a single Shakespeare play, allowing students to focus on the nuances of Shakespearean language and to consider the application of its themes to contemporary social and cultural matters of our time. Skills practiced will include close reading and analysis, introductory work with secondary sources, discussion, oral presentation, and formal analytical writing, and assessments will include reading checks/quizzes, a brief oral presentation, and a critical essay.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

(This course will not be offered in 2022-23.)

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Encountering the Holocaust through Literature

This one-mod course offers students engagement with the Holocaust through multigenre literary readings (diary, memoir, poetry, short fiction, and drama). in it, student gain a broader awareness of the complex multiplicities of perspective and experiences gathered under the catch-all term “the Holocaust.” Additionally, they gain an understanding of the power and necessity of literary expression, as well as literary expression’s potential pratical and ethical limitations. We will engage with texts composed by women and men, Jewish and non-Jewish writers, witnesses and non-witnesses, victims, bystanders, and perpetrators. Taken chronologically, our course texts offer glimpses into various phases of the Nazi terror: political beginnings, deportation, ghettoization, the concentration camp, and, finally, a reckoning with Nazism’s aftermath. Additionally, we examine the aesthetic maneuvers employed in these texts and consider how they vary based on the author’s relation to the catastrophe. Major assessments will include a reading journal (sustained for the duration of the module), weekly discussion board posts, and an analytical/literary synthesis essay and corresponding class presentation delivered during the 5th week.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Science & Literature

This course is cross-listed as MUL430L (Extradisciplinary) and SCI310L (Science). See MUL430L (Extradisciplinary) in the Extradisciplinary section of the catalog for description.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: 1 credit of either Biology or Intensive Biology

Open to: 11, 12

Being Human: Intro to Philosophy

Studying English through a philosophical lens provides an opportunity for students to engage with some of the world’s most interesting and influential thinkers. This introductory mod explores the fundamental question of what it is to be human. This exploration takes place through a discussion of key concepts such as identity, freedom, and human nature, and through a consideration of questions such as what sets humans apart from other species, where are the boundaries of being human lie, and whether animals or machines can be considered persons.

In “Being Human,” the primary assessment will be Paper 1A for the IB Philosophy SL exam.

Students who complete this mod can opt to continue their study of Philosophy by taking the two additional mods of IB SL Philosophy (ENG657Y).

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

IB SL Philosophy

“Socrates did not teach philosophy, he taught to philosophize.” (Daniel and Auriac, 2011: 416) Studying philosophy develops highly transferable skills such as the ability to formulate arguments clearly, to make reasoned judgments, and to evaluate highly complex and multifaceted issues. The emphasis of IB Philosophy is on actively engaging students in philosophical activity in their own lives. The course is focused on stimulating students’ intellectual curiosity and encouraging them to examine both their own perspectives and those of others. Students master close reading techniques and philosophical analysis and argumentation and write papers synthesizing these skills.

Students may opt to take the first mod, Being Human (ENG650A) in 11th grade and the remaining mods in 12th grade, or they may take all three mods in the same year.

In the second mod, Philosophy in Depth, students choose to focus on one of the following dimensions of philosophy: Aesthetics; Epistemology; Ethics; Philosophy and contemporary society; Philosophy of religion; Philosophy of science; or Political philosophy. The central text of the third mod is Peter Singer's The Life You Can Save which considers the moral responsibility of citizens of affluent nations vis-a-vis poverty in developing nations.

In each mod, students complete mocks of the respective SL exam questions as well as the IA task which is a philosophical analysis of a fictional or creative text. The course employs equitable standards-based grading with the standards and rubrics coming directly from the IB assessment criteria. Assessment weights match the IB Philosophy syllabus and final grades will be determined by IA marks and summative performance on mock exams.

Students enrolled in this course must sit for the IB exam.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: a 10th grade English course

Open to: 11, 12

Vergil’s Aeneid (in Rome)

This immersion term course in Rome is cross-listed as LAT930R (Language) and MUL930R (Extradisciplinary). A travel-abroad course, it requires parental consent. See MUL930R (Extradisciplinary) in the Extradisciplinary section of the catalog for description.

Prerequisite: Latin 2 and a 10th grade English class

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Transformative Justice

This immersion-term course is cross-listed as HIS980X (History) and MUL980X (Extradisciplinary). This domestic-travel class requires parental consent. See MUL980X (Extradisciplinary) in the Extradisciplinary section of the catalog for description.

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

French 1

Designed for students with little or no previous experience, this course introduces students to communication in French. Using an immersion method, students develop skills in speaking, listening, writing, and reading. Components include audio, video, and grammar study along with short writing assignments. The class is conducted almost entirely in French.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

French 2

Students in this course continue with the immersion method. The course begins with a review of key contexts and structures from French 1 and continues to deepen students’ command of French language communication through the study of video, audio, and grammar components. This class is conducted almost entirely in French.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: French 1 (C-)

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Intensive French 2

Students in this course continue with the immersion method. The course begins with a rapid review of key contexts and structures from French 1 and continues to broaden students’ command of French language communication through study of video, audio and grammar components. Students begin to apply language skills in more analytical and creative ways and gain their first exposure to French literature. This class is conducted in French.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: French 1 (B)

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

French 3

This course focuses on transitioning from acquisition to application of language through the study of culture and literature. Following a review of key contexts and structures from French 2, the course continues to expand students’ knowledge and command of the language. Writing skills are further developed through short essays and weekly journal entries. Students study a selection of poems by Jacques Prévert. Students intending to continue on to IB French 4 will need to do independent reading and grammar work over the summer in addition to the French 4 summer reading assignments.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: French 2 (C-)

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Intensive French 3

This course focuses on transitioning from acquisition to application of language through the study of culture and literature. The course begins with a rapid review of key contexts and structures from Intensive French 2. Students extend their ability to use language skills in analytical and creative ways and also develop writing skills through short essays and weekly journal entries. Students study a selection of poems by Jacques Prévert and short stories by other French authors. This course is a pre-IB course, preparing students for IB French 4.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: French 2 (B and approval of department head) or Intensive French 2 (C)

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Intensive French 4

This course is designed for intermediate level students and will aim at further honing their reading, writing and speaking skills. The class is conducted entirely in French and active oral participation is expected. Speaking and writing activities are based on cultural themes and contemporary issues are explored through movies; periodicals; songs of social, historical and artistic content; visual art; poems; and short stories. Review and continued refinement of grammatical structures are aimed at helping students develop their self-expression.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Intensive French 3 (C) or French 3 (B-)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

IB SL French B

IB SL French B is designed for students whose interest is primarily in the contemporary French-speaking world. The class is conducted entirely in French and active oral participation is expected. Speaking and writing activities are related to the contemporary world and prepare the students to a variety of tasks (oral description of a visual stimulus, writing letters, blogs, diaries, emails, etc.). Cultural themes and contemporary issues are explored through varied sources and correspond to the IB Themes. Review and continued refinement of grammatical structures are aimed at helping students develop their self-expression. Assignments are both written and oral. Juniors and seniors may, but are not required to, sit for the IB Language B standard-level exam at the end of this course.

IB SL French consists either of 3 mods of Intensive French 4 (FRE451A) plus the IB SL mod, or at least 2 mods of Advanced French (FRE550A) plus the IB SL mod. Students must have at least two mods of French (including the IB-specific mod) in the year they sit for the exam.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-4.0

Prerequisite: Intensive French 3 (B-) or French 3 (B-)

Open to: 11, 12

Advanced French

Students enter this class experienced in reading, writing, speaking, and understanding French. This class is conducted entirely in French and active oral participation is key. Each year, the literary, grammatical, and cultural foci of this class varies. Students read, interpret, and discuss formal and informal prose and literature; listen to authentic audio and video recordings; develop speaking skills in a variety of settings; and write both formal essays and informal communications.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: IB French 4 (B-) or Intensive French 4 (B-)

Open to: 11, 12

IB HL French B

IB HL French B consists of 3 mods of either Intensive French 4 (FRE451A) or Advanced French (FRE550A) in 11th grade, followed by at least 2 mods of Advanced French (FRE550A) or French Seminar (FRE650A) and the IB HL mod in 12th grade. Students may elect to include the IB SL French mod in 11th grade if they would like to sit for that exam before deciding whether to continue with HL French in 12th grade.

Students in this course must sit for the IB exam in May of 12th grade.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 5.0-8.0

Prerequisite: Intensive French 3 (B)

Open to: 11, 12

French Seminar

This course is for students who have native or near-native command of the French language. Content is tailored to the needs and interests of the students taking the course in a particular year. While this class will be an asset for those students who wish to take the AP exam, it is not an official preparatory course for the AP exam.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: IB/AP French 5 (B-), IB SL French (B-), or Advanced French (B-)

Open to: 11, 12

Human Geography/AP Human Geography

This is a 3- to 4-credit course depending on the number of mods taken. Students who take the optional fourth mod of the course are enrolled in AP Human Geography (HIS-118A) and are required to take the exam in May of the year when they take the AP Human Geography mod. Students may take this fourth mod in 9th or 10th grade after successfully completing the first three mods of Human Geography (HIS-110A) in 9th grade.

This course introduces students to human geography. The content is presented thematically and is organized around the discipline's main subfields: population change, agriculture, economics, political processes, culture, urban land use, and development. The UN's Sustainable Development Goals serve as the main thread that links these themes together. Students will develop skills in approaching problems geographically, using maps and geospatial technologies, and thinking critically about texts and graphic presentations of data through case studies drawn from all world regions. Students in this course see geography as a discipline relevant to the world in which they live; a source of ideas for identifying, clarifying, and solving problems at various scales and building global citizenship and environmental stewardship.

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9

US History

In this chronological survey of the history of the United States, topics covered include the political, economic, geographic, and social realities of the nation's past. The class moves at a swift pace, deepening the students' capacity to interpret and analyze reading material of both primary and secondary sources. The first mod covers the Foundations of Modern America, the second mod covers the American Century, and the third mod allows students to choose a focus topic dedicated to in-depth research: Civics, Culture, Identity, or International Relations. In lieu of one of these 3 focus mods, students can complete the US History requirement by taking all 3 mods of either African-American History or Intersectional Women’s History.

Students who have completed at least one year at George School may take George School's online version of this course during the summer.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Further Topics in US History

Students who would like to explore more than one of the focus areas (Civics, Culture, Identity, and International Relations) from US History [HIS220A] may do so by registering for this course and choosing the mods in which they are interested. The number of credits is determined by the number of mods chosen.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-4.0

Prerequisite: US History (at least 2 credits) or AP US History

Open to: 10, 11, 12

AP US History

This course prepares students for the AP examination in U.S. History. It is a college-level introduction to the development of the United States institutions and society from approximately 1491 to the present. Students develop and use the same skills and methods employed by historians: analyzing primary and secondary sources; developing historical arguments; making historical connections; and utilizing reasoning about comparison, causation, and continuity and change. The reading load is heavy and there are frequent writing assignments.

Students who enroll in this course must sit for the AP exam.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 10, 11, 12

AP US Government & Politics

This course is designed to empower students to be active, informed, and engaged citizens with an in-depth knowledge of the American government and political system. Through rigorous project-based and experiential learning, students in this course are exposed to a multitude of concepts relating to political science, governmental institutions, and the essential role that citizens play in the country. Topics include the foundations of American democracy, civil rights and liberties, the interactions between the branches of government, the role of mass media and public opinion, political participation, and the influence of various stakeholders on the policymaking process. In this course, students develop their critical thinking, analytical and evaluative abilities, as well as other key 21st century skills such as public speaking, advocacy, research, and media literacy. An applied civics project is a substantial requirement of this course.

Students who enroll in this course must sit for the AP exam.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: a US History course (may be taken concurrently)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

AP World History: Modern

Students in this fast-paced course learn to view history thematically. The course is organized around five overarching themes that serve as unifying threads throughout the course, helping students to relate what is particular about each time period or society to a “big picture” of history. The themes also provide a way to organize comparisons and analyze change and continuity over time. Independent use of a college-level textbook is necessary, along with reading primary source materials and analyzing them in writing.

A summer assignment is required in preparation for this course. Students who enroll in this course must sit for the AP exam.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: a US History course (may be taken concurrently)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Topics in Global Politics

The first mod of this course, Power, Peace, and Well-Being, focuses on several queries: (1) What is necessary to affect change? (2) What does it mean to live in a peaceful society? (3) What strategies can we use to achieve more peace and well-being in this world? Students use realism, liberalism, and critical theory to examine different types of power, resources needed to acquire power, and examples of how individuals, organizations, and states affect change. Students also learn the difference between positive and negative peace, as well as the concept of structural violence, and use an understanding of these frameworks to identify a spectrum of conflicts in society that hinder well-being. Finally, students begin exploring development initiatives used to address conflict, improve living conditions, and strive towards peace. Students engage in reflective political action related to course content.

Sovereignty, International Organizations, and Human Rights examines the notion of statehood and sovereignty as the primary framework for action in global politics. The course also examines the influence of international organizations, including the UN, IGOs, and NGOS, as well as how these structures improve global cooperation and justice, as well as their limits of doing so. The course focuses on several queries: (1) Who are the most powerful actors in global politics? (2) Do global organizations improve collaboration and justice? (3) How can we best achieve the protection of human rights and individuals in society? Students in this course use realism, liberalism, and critical theory to examine the notion of statehood and to compare the power of states in the global system to the influence of multinational corporations, NGOs, and non-state actors. Students also develop an understanding of the history of human rights, as well as our mechanisms to monitor and enforce human rights, and the obstacles of doing so. Each student taking this mod writes a research paper on human rights.

Students may register for either or both mods of this course. These mods are a subset of the IB SL Global Politics course [HIS437Y], so students wishing to take an IB exam in Global Politics should register for that course rather than this one.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-2.0

Prerequisite: a US History course (may be taken concurrently)

Open to: 11, 12

IB SL Global Politics

This course explores global politics through four core units: power and sovereignity, human rights, peace and conflict, and development and sustainability. It allows students to develop an understanding of political activity and processes, as well as explore political issues affecting their own lives. The course focuses on political theory, while helping students to understand abstract political concepts by grounding them in real-world examples of events and case studies from the past decade, such as the Palestinian bid for Statehood, North Korea’s authoritarian state, the civil war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Arab Spring. It also invites comparison between such examples and case studies to ensure a wider and trans-national perspective. Students also explore politics through a unique “engagement activity,” which requires them to combine academic research with political action to explore a political topic of their own interest. In this way, students are encouraged to explore the relationship between people and power, and how this manifests on local, national, and international levels.

Students are required to take the IB SL Global Politics examination in May. Students interested in the topics, but not interested in taking the IB exam may take either or both of the first two mods of this course by registering for 1 or 2 credits of Global Politics [HIS436H]

A summer assignment is required for this course and students must sit for the IB exam.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: a US History course (may be taken concurrently)

Open to: 11, 12

Topics in Modern History

This course consists of three mods that can be taken independently or together. Students wishing to take more than one mod may take them in any order and they may span multiple years.

Independence Movements
This course explores struggles for independence in India, Africa, and Latin America. Students will examine the complexity of issues and debates surrounding decolonization and the ways different people have sought to transcend legacies of colonialism. To demonstrate their understanding and share their knowledge with others, this course culminates in the creation of a museum exhibit on one country’s movement toward independence.

Rights and Protest: A Comparative Study of South African Apartheid and the US Civil Rights Movement
This course examines and compares the South African Apartheid from 1948-1964 and the United States' Civil Rights Movement from 1954-1965. Students read primary source documents and analyze the causes, events, and people who fought for and against these movements. To explore the situations further, students also undertake a historical investigation on a topic of their choosing

Making the Modern World: Industrialization from 1750-2005
This course delves into the history of technology as examine the history of industrialization focusing primarily on the US, UK, China, and India. We look at the ways the development of mechanization and standardization changed people’s lives and global power dynamics. From the growth of cities to the development of mass communication, from weapons to fast food, this course allows student to examine how technology has created the modern world.

Students may register for any or all mods of this course. These mods are a subset of the IB SL History course [HIS447Y], so students wishing to take an IB SL exam in History should register for that course rather than this one.

(This course will not be offered in 2022-23.)

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: a US History course (may be taken concurrently)

Open to: 11, 12

IB SL History

This course, which consists of all three mods of Topics in Modern History (HIS446H) prepares students for the standard-level IB History exam. A major historical investigation project involving intensive research and mature writing is an IB requirement undertaken in the Rights and Protest mod.

Students who enroll in this course must sit for the IB exam.

(This course will not be offered in 2022-23.)

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: a US History course (may be taken concurrently)

Open to: 11, 12

IB HL History

This course, in combination with a U. S. History course taken in eleventh grade, prepares students for the higher-level IB History exam with the History of the Americas regional option. Students study selected topics that embrace key events, personalities, and issues of the world in the twentieth-century, with an emphasis on key elements of Canadian and Cuban history. Topics typically included are the emergence of the Americas in global affairs, the First World War with a focus on the role of Canada and the United States, the Great Depression and the Americas, Hitler’s Germany, the move to global war, the Second World War and the Americas, the Chinese Civil War, Castro’s Cuba, and the Contra War. A major historical investigation project involving intensive research and mature writing is an IB requirement undertaken in the first two terms. The course proceeds at a fast pace and regular student participation is expected in the seminar-style classroom format. Substantial reading is regularly assigned from college-level texts.

A summer assignment is required for this course and students must sit for the IB exam.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: a US History course (AP US History is preferred)

Open to: 11, 12

Introduction to Economics

This course introduces students to the frameworks through which economists study the world. Using a series of simulations, students will explore concepts including scarcity, opportunity cost, supply and demand, elasticity, the theory of consumer choice, and contemporary economic issues.

This course can either be taken alone or it can serve as the first mod in the AP Microeconomics, AP Macroeconomics, or IB HL Economics sequences.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: a US History course (may be taken concurrently)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

IB HL Economics

Economics is an exciting, dynamic subject that allows students to develop an understanding of the complexities and interdependence of economic activities in a rapidly changing world. This course uses economic theories to examine the ways in which these choices are made at the local level, the national level and the global level. While economics has its foundations in theory, the course also emphasizes the application of economic theory to real-world issues. Students develop the analytical tools necessary to acquire a deeper understanding of major global challenges dealing with issues of equity, sustainability, the concentration of economic power and increasing interdependence. Assessments include written IB style tests, research projects, newscasts, simulations, and commentaries on news articles.

The mods must be taken in order but can span multiple years. Students who enroll in this course must sit for the IB exam.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 5.0-5.0

Prerequisite: Introduction to Economics

Open to: 11, 12

AP Microeconomics

Students in this course prepare for the AP Microeconomics exam and build on the knowledge developed in Introduction to Economics by looking at the formulas that underlie the concepts. Specific economic concepts covered include the nature and functions of product markets, supply and demand, theory of consumer choice, production and costs, firm behavior and market structure, factor markets, market failure, and the role of government.

Students who enroll in this course must sit for the AP exam.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-2.0

Prerequisite: Introduction to Economics

Open to: 11, 12

AP Macroeconomics

Students in this course prepare for the AP Macroeconomics exam while at the same time discussing contemporary economic issues. This course will build on the knowledge students develop in Introduction to Economics by looking at how those concepts play out in the world economy. Specific economic concepts covered include international trade, the role of government, measurements of economic performance, national income and price determination, the financial sector, stabilization policies, and economic growth.

Students who enroll in this course must sit for the AP exam.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-2.0

Prerequisite: Introduction to Economics (HIS450A)

Open to: 11, 12

Introduction to Psychology

This course provides an overview of the nature of psychological questions and various approaches to research. The course focuses on understanding psychology through the study of social dynamics, personality, and motivation. Students engage in simulations and demonstrations to see how psychology applies to daily life.

This course is the first in a sequence of 3 or 4 courses that can be combined as either Psychology or AP Psychology, respectively.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: a US History course (may be taken concurrently)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Psychology and AP Psychology

Psychology
This course is a 2-3 credit course depending on the number of mods taken. This course would include Introduction to Psychology and 1-2 other mod courses. Please see descriptions of individual mod courses below.

AP Psychology
This course is a 4 credit course that would include all four of the courses listed below. These courses can be taken over multiple school years if desired. Those who are taking AP Psychology should plan to take Developmental and Abnormal Psychology as the last course in the sequence as it will be offered typically during Mod 5 or Mod 6.

Introduction to Psychology
Students will get an overview of the nature of psychological questions and various approaches to research. The course will focus on understanding psychology through the study of social dynamics, personality, and motivation. Students will engage in simulations and demonstrations to see how psychology applies to daily life.
This course is the first in a sequence of 3 or 4 courses that can be combined as either Psychology or AP Psychology, respectively. This course mod is open to 10th graders while the rest of the course mods below are open only to students in grades 11 and 12.

Biological Bases of Behavior
This course will focus on the role of biological functioning in behavior. Students will get an introduction to basic concepts in neuroscience, consciousness, sensation and perception. Students will engage in activities to understand basics of the brain, effects of psychoactive drugs, and how auditory and visual illusions occur.
Prerequisite: Introduction to Psychology

Cognition, Learning and Emotion
This course will examine the processes of thinking, memory, language, learning and emotion as determinants of our behavior. Through these topics students will be able to explain the different ways we learn, evaluate the biases present in our thinking, and debate the definition of intelligence.
Prerequisite: Introduction to Psychology

Developmental and Abnormal Psychology
This course will focus on how we change from childhood through adulthood as well as the causes, symptoms, and therapies for various mental disorders. projects. Students will assess how we define normal in various contexts and practice using their knowledge in real case studies.
Prerequisite: Introduction to Psychology

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-4.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

IB SL Psychology

This course focuses on understanding the scientific process and methodology behind psychological concepts.  Students explore biological, cognitive and sociocultural approaches to psychology.  Students conduct their own psychological research through the internal assessment which includes development of a testable hypothesis, procedure, statistical analysis, and evaluation. The final unit applies the previous approaches to the study of abnormal behavior.  This course is writing intensive and focuses on critically analyzing scientific studies in the field of psychology.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: a US History course (may be taken concurrently)

Open to: 11, 12

African American History

In this course, students explore the history of Africans in the Americas by engaging with the work of archivists and historians. Content covers fifteenth-century diplomacy between Africa and Europe; centers African American art, film, and music; and explores twentieth-century debates between Black intellectuals. This course extends the student's ability to analyze and interpret both primary and secondary sources. Class activities include collaborative group work, oral presentations, debates, lectures, and analysis of historical documents. Successful completion of an independent research project is a course requirement.

Students may take the first mod as a stand-alone course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: a US History course

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Asian-American Experience: East Asia Focus

Asian Americans have been an integral part of ensuring that the United States lives up to its stated values since they first arrived in this country in the 1850s. This course serves as an introduction to several aspects of the Asian American experience including laws, Supreme Court cases, war, and the “model minority” myth. Our topics will include the Chinese Exclusion Act, the American occupation of Hawaii and the Philippines, Japanese Internment, the impact of wars on Asian Americans, and the legal construction of whiteness designed to explicitly exclude Asians. While Asian Americans are a group comprising myriad nationalities and cultures, this one mod course will focus on Chinese Americans, Japanese Americans, Korean Americans, and Vietnamese Americans.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 10, 11, 12

History of Architecture & Urban Design

This course uncovers at the ways that built environment has both responded to and been shaped by U.S. society. Students explore the history of architecture and urban planning from the late-nineteenth century to the present, examining the impact of the architecture on society, politics, economics, and the environment. Students develop a working knowledge of the major design movements of the last 150 years and the current issues and trends in architecture and urban planning. The goal of this course is for students to develop the skills to understand and analyze the built environment--from houses and everyday streetscapes to skyscrapers and experimental designs--and to understand how these spaces are products of the society in which they were created. We also analyze how the built environment has perpetuated inequalities and explore the contemporary movements to address these issues. Taking advantage of our location, the class regularly ventures off campus to survey buildings and communities in the area.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: the second mod of any US History course

Open to: 10, 11, 12

History of Communism

This course is comprised of three mods that can be taken independently. It is recommended that the mods be taken in sequential order; they can be taken over multiple years.

In the Origins of Communism mod, students examine the origins of communism, beginning with the earliest phases of the “Utopian Socialist” movement. The course then moves through the expansion of communism during the years of the Cold War, particularly in Asia and Cuba. The focus of assessment in this class is on honing history skills of causation, comparison, and continuity and change over time through essay writing.

The Communism in Crisis mod class focuses on challenges for communist states during the years 1976-1989. Topics iinclude the struggle for power following the death of Mao Zedong, China under Deng Xiaoping, domestic and foreign problems of the Brezhnev era, Gorbachev and his aims/policies, and the consequences of Gorbachev’s policies for Eastern Europe. The focus of assessment in this class is on document evaluation and analysis.

In the Researching Communism mod, students collaborate with the instructor, librarians, and classmates to produce two substantial research projects: a Project Based Learning Gold Standard presentation and a traditional research paper. It is recommended students take either The Origins of Communism or Communism in Crisis prior to this mod.

(One mod of this course will be offered in 2022-23.)

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: a US History course (may be taken concurrently)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Intersectional Women’s History

This course serve as an introduction to the concepts of intersectionality, core cultural identifiers, the patriarchy, and the ways in which personhood and bodies have been legislated both in the United States and abroad.

Mod 1 (can be taken separately):
Students use primary and secondary sources, film, and articles from current publications to inform our studies, with lively wide-ranging discussions serving as a hallmark of this course. Topics include indigenous views of gender roles, the impact of anti-colonial revolutions on notions of femininity, violence, maternal mortality, and the interconnectedness of racism and the patriarchy.

Mod 2:

This mod is an expansion and continuation of the concepts established in Mod 1. Topics include feminism and its waves, educational and economic empowerment, specific Constitutional Amendments such as the 13th, 14th, 15th, and 19th, the Supreme Court, reproductive rights, and LGBTQ+ identity and rights.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-2.0

Prerequisite: a US History course (may be taken concurrently)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Japanese History and Culture

This project-based course provides an in-depth exploration of the history and culture of Japan. We begin by analyzing the spiritual, cultural, and artistic foundations of early Japan, with specific focus on Shinto, Buddhism, Confucianism, the Samurai, and the Shogunate. The second part of the course examines modernization, imperialism, and militarization from the Meiji Restoration through World War II. We then conclude by exploring the evolution of modern Japan. Specific topics include economic development and globalization, natural disasters and crisis response, environmental concerns and sustainable energy, regional security and nuclear non-proliferation, gender inequality and human rights, and modern Japanese art and culture. The main assessments will be three student-led research projects, encompassing the time periods of each module. In addition, a core component of the course utilizes class discussions to analyze primary sources, film productions, and cultural media.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-2.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Latin American History

This course explores the historical, social, cultural, economic, and political factors that have helped shape Latin America. We begin by examining the development and interaction of Indigenous and Spanish civilizations. From this contact a process of transculturation began which led to the formation of a new Latin American culture. After establishing empires throughout Latin America, the European powers set up the latifundia system to extract resources for the benefit of the colonizers and the global economy. We then explore how this economic and social system continues to have substantial impact on Latin America and interactions with Western powers.

The second part of the course examines the independence, evolution, and modernization of different nations in Latin America. At the heart of such analysis is the utilization of case studies regarding Brazil, Cuba, Guatemala, and Puerto Rico. In addition, students each research the history of a particular nation from the 19th-21st century. Current events and geography quizzes are an ongoing focus throughout this part of the course. After completing major research projects on their nation, students conduct a regional summit focused on addressing the goals as stated by the United Nations. Student learn and follow parliamentary procedures and compose position papers leading up to the conference.

(This course will not be offered in 2022-23.)

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-2.0

Prerequisite: a US History course (may be taken concurrently)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

The Origins of Democracy

This course examines the origins of democracy, specifically in Ancient Greece, with a focus on the period of Solon’s reforms to the end of the Peloponnesian War. The course uses the case study of Athenian democracy to explore themes relevant to contemporary life including: (1) debate and civic discourse as the foundation of democratic political structures, (2) issues of equity in representation and political decision-making, (3) peace, prosperity, and expansion enabled by democratic structures, and (4) the consolidation of power and the relinquishing of representation for the sake of security and stability. Blending history, philosophy, and political science, this course connects ancient history to contemporary political issues, relationships, and conflicts.

(This course will not be offered in 2022-23.)

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 10, 11, 12

The United Nations & Leadership

This course introduces students to International Relations through the lens of the United Nations (UN). Students learn about the founding, functions, and programs of the UN. Students also gain an understanding of current global issues through an exploration of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Once students have gained foundational knowledge of the UN, diplomacy, and global issues, they then work to transmit this knowledge as they organize a middle school Model UN (MUN) Conference. They choose the issues, research the issues, and write the issue bulletins. Students also visit nearby schools and teach lessons to middle school students to prepare them for a Junior MUN conference held at George School. This course requires students to gain academic knowledge, organize all the logistics of a conference, create lesson plans to share their knowledge, teach those lesson plans to younger students, and ideally empower younger students to work together to find solutions to world problems.

(This course will not be offered in 2022-23.)

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-2.0

Prerequisite: a US History course (may be taken concurrently)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Entrepreneurship

This course is a business plan competition. Students work on creating and executing a business plan while concurrently learning relevant business theories that they are applying in real time. The course allows for in-depth practice of organizational structure, human resources, production, finance, and marketing. The goal of this course is to give students the opportunity to both be introduced to business theory and to learn by doing and reflecting. Students engage in building a business plan, creating and designing a product of mostly recycled materials, hiring labor, marketing their product, as well as keeping track of all their finances. This interdisciplinary, experiential-based course allows students to understand more about the world in which they live. Assessments in this course include written assessments on theory, critiques of case studies, research, written business plan, execution of business plan and reflection.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-2.0

Prerequisite: a US History course (may be taken concurrently)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Social Science of Climate Change

This course explores the problems facing communities around the globe as a result of climate change. Students examine a wide range of solutions from the individual to the global scale, consider the potential impact of solutions, and put their knowledge to work bringing about meaningful change. Throughout, students continually examine their own experiences, communities, and practices to see the role they play in both causing and solving this crisis.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Producing Peace: Civic Media Literacy & Production

This course is cross-listed as MUL770P (Extradisciplinary) and ARP220P (Arts). See the course description for MUL770P (Extradisciplinary) in the Extradisciplinary section of the catalog.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 10, 11, 12

A Brief History of Vietnam

This course is cross-listed as MUL880V (Extradisciplinary). See MUL880V (Extradisciplinary) in the Extradisciplinary section of the catalog for description.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Economics & Sustainability (in the Netherlands)

This course is cross-listed as MUL930N (Extradisciplinary). See MUL930N (Extradisciplinary) in the Extradisciplinary section of the catalog for description.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Transformative Justice

This course is cross-listed as ENG980X (English) and MUL980X (Extradisciplinary). This domestic-travel class requires parental consent. See MUL980X (Extradisciplinary) in the Extradisciplinary section of the catalog for description.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Latin 1

This course introduces students to Latin, the language not only of ancient Rome, but also the European Middle Ages and the fields of early modern math, science, and philosophy. We will use Suburani, a story-based introductory Latin textbook that shows the diversity of the Roman empire and addresses issues important to students. Students will learn the essentials of grammar and vocabulary through reading and writing Latin. They will also increase their English vocabulary and learn about the history and culture of Rome. Course objectives include learning to communicate in Latin through reading and writing; gaining a basic knowledge of the daily life of the ancient Romans, of some famous Roman individuals, and of historical and geographical facts; recognizing Latin words and derivatives in modern English; and understanding basic patterns of English as they relate to the structure of Latin. The course grade will be determined by regular progress checks and proficiency assessments, including open-book assessments.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Latin 2

This course continues the introduction to Latin grammar and Roman culture begun in Latin 1. We continue reading about our friends from Suburani while reviewing the basics from Latin 1 and learning the remaining grammatical structures needed to start reading authentic texts in Latin 3. The course grade will be determined by regular progress checks and proficiency assessments, including open-book assessments.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Latin 1 (C-)

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Latin 3

Latin 3 introduces students to the excitement that is reading authentic Latin texts written by real Romans over two millennia ago. Course objectives include developing a proficiency for reading authentic Latin, identifying the use of literary devices in context, learning to scan Latin poetry, learning to efficiently use a Latin lexicon, recognizing Latin words and derivatives in modern English, and improving your ability to communicate, both in Latin and in English. The course grade will be determined by regular progress checks and proficiency assessments, including open-book assessments.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Latin 2 (C-)

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Latin 4

Latin 4 helps students advance from merely translating Latin to reading it and appreciating it as literature. The readings change from year to year, but often include selections from Ovid's Metamorphoses, Vergil's Aeneid, and poems of Catullus and Horace. Students increase their Latin reading comprehension, translation ability, and literary analysis skills. The course grade will be determined by regular progress checks and proficiency assessments, including open-book assessments.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Latin 3 (B)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

IB SL Latin

Students begin their study of IB SL Latin by taking 3 mods of Latin 4 (LAT400A), followed by a mod that is focused on preparation for the IB SL Latin exam. The IB standard-level readings change from year to year, but often include selections from Ovid's Metamorphoses, Vergil's Aeneid, and poems of Catullus and Horace. Students increase their Latin reading comprehension, translation ability, and literary analysis skills. Each student chooses a research topic and completes a research dossier using primary sources from the classical world. Assessments in this course are based on the questions found on the IB exam.

There is a summer assignment for this course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-4.0

Prerequisite: Latin 3 (B)

Open to: 11, 12

Advanced Latin

This course is for advanced students who have completed Latin 4 and wish to continue their engagement with the rich and entertaining literature of ancient Rome or perhaps even those of Medieval Europe. Students have some freedom in the choice of author and texts to be studied. Assessments will include regular progress checks, translations, and literary analyses.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-2.0

Prerequisite: Latin 4 (B) or IB SL Latin (B)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

IB HL Latin

Students begin their study of IB HL Latin by taking 5 mods of Latin 4 and Advanced Latin over the course of 11th and 12th grades, followed by a mod that focuses on preparation for the IB HL Latin exam. The IB higher-level readings change from year to year, but often include selections from Ovid's Metamorphoses, Vergil's Aeneid, and poems of Catullus and Horace. The HL level curriculum also expects students to do outside reading on the ancient texts in English. Students increase their Latin reading comprehension, translation ability, and literary analysis skills. Each student chooses a research topic and completes a research dossier using primary sources from the classical world. Assessments in this course are based on the questions found on the IB exam.

Students are required to take the IB HL exam in May of 12th grade.

This course requires summer work.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 5.0-6.0

Prerequisite: Latin 3 (B)

Open to: 11, 12

Vergil’s Aeneid (in Rome)

This immersion term course in Rome is cross-listed as ENG930R (English) and MUL930R (Extradisciplinary). A travel-abroad course, it requires parental consent. See MUL930R (Extradisciplinary) in the Extradisciplinary section of the catalog for description.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: Latin 2 and a 10th grade English class

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Math 1

This 5-mod course is designed to allow entry at various points depending on a student's background in algebra. In the first mod, students review and strengthen prealgebra skills. The three core mods cover the content of a college preparatory Algebra 1 course. The optional extended topics mod, which moves at a much swifter pace than the first four, covers much of the algebraic content of Math 2 and enables students to progress directly to Math 3.

Taken over the course of 9th and 10th grades, Math 1 and Math 2 prepare interested students to begin IB SL Mathematics: Applications in 11th grade.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-5.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9

Math 2

This 4-mod course takes an integrated approach to the content of traditional college preparatory Algebra 2 and Geometry courses, and covers most IGCSE Core/IBMYP 5 Core topics not covered in Math 1. Students do extensive work with linear and quadratic functions and their graphs, including consideration of quadratic inequalities and quadratic equations with complex roots, and are introduced to polynomial and exponential functions, arithmetic and geometric sequences and series, and descriptive statistics.

Students need not take all four mods in the same year. Students who have mastered the content of the optional fifth mod of Math 1 may elect to take the Math 3/4 sequence instead of this course.

Taken over the course of 9th and 10th grades, Math 1 and Math 2 prepare interested students to begin IB SL Mathematics: Applications in 11th grade.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-4.0

Prerequisite: Math 1 or an Algebra 1 course.

Open to: 9, 10

Math 3

This 3-mod course, which places a strong emphasis on developing the student's ability to construct, communicate, and justify mathematical arguments, consists of one mod of algebraic content and two mods of geometric content, covering the first third of a typical yearlong "honors" Algebra 2 course and the first two thirds of a typical yearlong "honors" geometry course (or about half of the topics in the IGCSE Extended curriculum not already covered in Math 1 and 2). In the algebra mod, the focus is on understanding the concept of a function in general, with particular attention to linear, quadratic, and exponential functions. The connections to sequences and series are explored. In the geometry mods, the focus is on formalizing a student's existing geometric knowledge through the lens of mathematical proof.

Taken over the course of 9th and 10th grades, Math 3 and Math 4 prepare interested students to begin IB SL Mathematics: Analysis 11th grade. With the addition of the first two mods of precalculus in 10th or 11th grade, students are prepared to begin IB HL Mathematics: Applications in 11th grade.

Sophomores who have taken Math 2 in 9th grade typically take only the algebra mod of this course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Math 1 with extended topics mod (A-), Math 2 (B), or Accelerated Algebra 1 (B+)

Open to: 9, 10, 11

Math 4

This course, which builds on the skills of constructing, communicating, and justifying mathematical arguments developed in Math 3, consists of two mods of algebraic content and one mod of geormetric and trigonometric content, covering the final two-thirds of a typical yearlong "honors" Algebra 2 course and the final third of a typical yearlong "honors" geometry course (or most topics from the IGCSE Extended curriculum not covered in Math 1-3, along with some content of IGCSE Additional Mathematics). The algebraic content is focused around the concept of functions and their inverses, with a focus on polynomial, rational, exponential, and logarithmic functions.The geomety/trigonometry mod includes circle theorems, right triangle trigonometry, three-figure bearings, and the laws of sines and cosines.

Taken over the course of 9th and 10th grades, Math 3 and Math 4 prepare interested students to begin IB SL Mathematics: Analysis in 11th grade. With the addition of the first two mods of precalculus in 10th or 11th grade, students are prepared to begin IB HL Mathematics: Applications in 11th grade. Students who take Advanced Analysis after Math 4 will be prepared to take IB HL Mathematics: Analysis.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Math 3 (C+)

Open to: 9, 10, 11

Algebraic and Geometric Analysis

This course is designed to challenge those 9th and new 10th-grade students who have unusually strong backgrounds in algebra, geometry, or both. Students build on prior experience in algebra and geometry as a basis for investigating advanced topics, including those typically seen in math contests. Emphasis is placed on individual and group exploration of mathematical ideas in order to solve unfamiliar problems, to discover patterns, and to prove results. Creative problem solving, clear thinking, and careful articulation provide an important foundation for advanced mathematics courses at George School and beyond. The concept of proof is central to the course; a wide variety of proof strategies are explored. Topics from earlier algebra courses that are studied in greater depth include functions (polynomial, absolute value, rational, radical, exponential, and logarithmic), inverse functions, complex numbers, and nonlinear inequalities. Topics from earlier geometry courses that are studied in greater depth include congruency axioms, similarity, parallel properties, area, perimeter, and volume. Topics which may be completely new to students include set theory, vectors in two and three dimensions, parametric equations, the binomial theorem, number theory, algebraic proof, matrices, descriptive statistics, conic sections, sequences and series, Fermat primes, and theorems from Ceva, Heron, and Apollonius.

The class uses a problem book rather than a textbook. Daily homework requires students to creatively apply concepts discussed in class to thought-provoking problems with methods of solution that may not have been demonstrated by the teacher. Because many students who take this course have not previously had to study to do well in math, attention is given to techniques for efficient and effective learning of advanced mathematics. This course is taught at a rapid pace. Students are encouraged to develop the confidence to risk failure by tackling questions that deepen their understanding in class, on homework, and on tests. Strong graphing and algebraic skills are assumed, as is the ability to generalize a pattern from specific cases. Students in this class are strongly encouraged to sit for the Mathematical Association of America's AMC exam.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Exceptionally strong background in algebra and strong background in geometry as demonstrated by skills assessment

Open to: 9, 10

Algebra 2

A thorough review of Algebra 1 skills is intertwined with the development of more advanced algebraic skills in this course. Students are introduced to the concept of a mathematical function and they do extensive work with linear and quadratic functions and their graphs. Quadratic equations with complex roots are considered and quadratic inequalities are explored. Logarithmic and exponential expressions, equations, and functions are introduced. Students deepen their understanding of rational, absolute value, and polynomial expressions and equations. Concepts are introduced or extended almost daily. Review is built in as needed. Daily homework problems are similar to problems worked through in class.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: A geometry course together with either Algebra 1 (C-) or Accelerated Algebra 1

Open to: 11

Intensive Algebra 2

Extending the skills developed in Accelerated Algebra 1 and Intensive Geometry with Trigonometry, this course introduces new algebraic concepts that include rational expressions and equations; quadratic expressions, equations, and inequalities; complex numbers; sequences and series; and the binomial theorem. There is a thorough consideration of the concept of a function, including transformation of graphs and inverse functions. Polynomial, absolute value, logarithmic, and exponential expressions and functions are studied. New topics are introduced daily. While many daily homework problems are similar to problems worked in class, others require students to apply what they know to new types of problems. Strong graphing, factoring, and note-taking skills are assumed.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: One of the following two options:
1. Intensive Geometry with Trig (C)
OR
2. Geometry (A-) together with Algebra 1 (A) or Accelerated Algebra 1 (B)

Open to: 10, 11

Functions and Trigonometry

This exploration-based class includes real-world applications of the skills developed. During the first mod, students review and extend the study of functions and relations begun in Math 2, with particular attention to translations and transformations of polynomial, exponential, and logarithmic functions. The second mod is devoted to trigonometry, including radian measure, the unit circle, and the graphs of sine, cosine, and tangent function. The pace is relaxed, yet purposeful. If a specific exploration is proving fruitful for a particular class, it might be extended even if that means not covering every topic on the original syllabus.

The optional third mod of this course, Advanced Functions (MAT310A), is common to IB SL Math: Applications and provides additional preparation for Precalculus (MAT340A). Some students may instead opt to go directly to Precalculus, while still others may decide to take Statistics (MAT510A) or Accelerated Statistics (MAT511A) in lieu of the Advanced Functions mod.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Math 2 (C), Algebra 2 (C-), Math 3, or Intensive Algebra 2

Open to: 11, 12

Advanced Functions

This course, which can be taken alone or as the third mod of Functions and Trigonometry (MAT310A) gives students the opportunity to advance their algebraic and trigonometric knowledge before proceeding with the IB SL Math: Applications sequence or taking Precalculus (MAT340A). The study of functions (in particular, linear, quadratic, cubic, sinusoidal, and exponential) is deepened through more advanced applications and a focus on mathematical modeling, often using a graphing device. A circular functions approach to trigonometry completes the study of trigonometry begun in Functions and Trigonometry. Real-world applications of the skills developed are central to this course. The content of this course may be modified to meet student needs.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: Any of the following
1. Math 3 (B+)
2. Math 4 (C+)
3. Functions and Trigonometry (C, 2 credits)
4. Geometry (B+) or Intensive Geometry with Trig (C+), together with either Algebra 2 (B+) or Intensive Algebra 2 (C+)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Precalculus

The concept of a function is the central theme of this course. Topics covered in depth include domain and range, composition, translation, transformation, and inverse functions. A primary goal is to help students learn to shift fluently between algebraic and graphical representations of functions. Polynomial, exponential, logarithmic, rational, and trigonometric functions are studied in-depth and the concept of a limit is introduced. Additional topics include sequences and series, vectors, and matrices.

A strong working knowledge of linear and quadratic functions is assumed. In addition, students are expected to have good algebraic skills, good graphing skills, and familiarity with right triangle trigonometry. While many daily homework problems are similar to problems worked in class, others require students to apply what they know to new types of problems. The capacity for independent work is important to a student's success.

The first two mods of this course are part of the IB SL Mathematics: Analysis course. Students may take Intro to Calculus (MAT400A) and/or the first mod of Calculus (MAT410A) after completing these mods. Enrolling in AP Calculus - AB (MAT428A) or the final two mods of Calculus requires completion of all three mods of Precalculus.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Any of the following
1. [Advanced] Algebraic and Geometric Analysis
2. Algebra 2 (A)
3. Intensive Algebra 2 (B)
4, Math 4 (B)
5. Functions and Trigonometry (2 credits, A, or 3 credits, B+)
6. Advanced Functions (B+)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Advanced Analysis

Students in this course develop their ability to investigate a problem mathematically and hone their proof-writing skills by exploring such topics as trigonometric functions, theories of polynomial equations, logarithmic and exponential functions, inverse functions, complex numbers, DeMoivre's theorem, polar coordinates, vectors in three dimensions, probability, combinatorics, linear algebra, and mathematical induction. The pace is very fast. Because the class frequently takes the form of a Socratic dialogue with questions asked and solutions offered by both teacher and students, it is imperative that students have or develop the courage to write down and share their ideas.

Satisfactory performance in the first two mods of this course fulfills the prerequisite for any of the calculus courses offered at George School. The third mod is a prerequisite for IB HL Math: Analysis and a variety of other advanced courses.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Any one of the following
1. [Advanced] Algebraic and Geometric Analysis (C+)
2. Intensive Geometry with Trig (A) and Intensive Algebra 2 (A)
3. Math 3 (A) and Math 4 (A)

Open to: 10, 11

Intro to Calculus

In this course, which can be taken independently or as part of IB SL Math: Applications, students work with derivatives and antiderivatives of polynomial functions to explore the central calculus concepts of rates of change and accumulation. Applications include linear approximations, function analysis, optimization, and finding the area under a curve. Students use technology as an aid in developing and exploring calculus-based models.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: Functions and Trig (3 credits, B), or Advanced Functions (B), or Precalculus (2 credits, C-)

Open to: 11, 12

Calculus

The first mod of this course is a common mod with IB SL Math: Analysis (MAT637Y) and IB HL Math: Application (MAT627Z). In this mod, students learn to differentiate polynomials, the sine and cosine functions, the exponential function, and the natural log function, and work with both definite and indefinite integrals of these derivatives. Applications to function analysis, optimization, kinematics, and areas between curves are considered.

In preparation for college-level calculus (including AP Calculus), the second and third mod of this course considers limits in substantially more depth, including the limit definition of the derivative, and rectangle and trapezoid approximations to the area under a curve. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus is introduced, and derivatives (and associated integrals) of the other four trig functions, exponential functions of bases other than e, and some inverse trig functions are studied. Further applications include volumes, related rates, accumulation in various contexts, and probability functions.

Students may take the first mod of this course after completing the first 2 mods of Precalculus. Enrollment in subsequent mods requires completing the third mod of Precalculus. Students who have taken all three Precalculus mods but do not meet the grade prerequisite may enroll if they first earn a B- or better in Intro to Calculus.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite:
For 22-23: either Intensive Precalculus (B) or Advanced Precalculus with Discrete Math
For 23-24 and later: either Precalculus (B) or Advanced Analysis

Open to: 11, 12

AP Calculus – AB

This course covers all topics included in the College Board syllabus for AP Calculus AB. It is designed to be the equivalent of a college-level Calculus 1 course. Throughout the course, problems are considered from graphical, numerical, and analytical perspectives with an aim toward developing students’ ability to shift easily from one perspective to another. There is an emphasis on learning to understand, use, and appreciate the value of the precise technical language (definitions, theorems, etc.) of mathematics. An awareness of the historical context of the development of calculus and an appreciation of its importance as a human achievement are cultivated. Students learn to discern situations in which technology can be a helpful tool in the solution of a problem. Graphing calculators are used extensively. The pace is fast. Students are expected to work as mathematicians do in that they are asked frequently to try problems without having been explicitly taught how to find the solutions. Excellent algebraic, graphing, and organizational skills are assumed, as is a very good understanding of trigonometric functions.

Students are required to sit for the AP exam.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite:
22-23: Intensive Precalculus (A) or Advanced Precalculus with Discrete Math (C) or IB SL Calculus (B)
23-24: Precalculus (3 credits, A), or Advanced Analysis (2 credits, C), or Calculus (A if 1 credit of Calculus, B if 2 credits)

Open to: 11, 12

AP Calculus – BC

This course covers all topics included in the College Board syllabus for AP Calculus BC. It is designed to be the equivalent of college-level Calculus 1 and 2 courses. Because of this, the course moves extremely quickly, and the Calculus 1 material is covered at a particularly fast pace. Throughout the course, problems are considered from graphical, numerical, and analytical perspectives with an aim toward developing students’ ability to shift easily from one perspective to another. There is an emphasis on learning to understand, use, and appreciate the value of the precise technical language (definitions, theorems, etc.) of mathematics. An awareness of the historical context of the development of calculus and an appreciation of its importance as a human achievement are cultivated. Students learn to discern situations in which technology can be a helpful tool in the solution of a problem. Graphing calculators are used extensively. Students are expected to work as mathematicians do in that they are asked frequently to try problems without having been explicitly taught how to find the solutions. Excellent algebraic, graphing, and organizational skills are assumed, as is a very good understanding of trigonometric functions.

Students with a 5 on the AP Calculus AB exam may opt-out of the first mod of this course.

Students are required to sit for the AP exam.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-3.0

Prerequisite:
For 22-23: Advanced Precalculus with Discrete Math (A-) or AP Calculus AB (B-)
For 23-24: Advanced Analysis (2 credits: A or 3 credits: A-) or AP Calculus AB (B-)

Open to: 11, 12

Statistics

The first two mods of this course introduce students to the concepts, symbols, terminology, and process of statistics. Students formulate questions that can be addressed with data; collect, organize, and display relevant data to answer statistical questions; select, use, and evaluate descriptive methods to analyze data, and critique graphs and descriptive data analyses that they encounter outside of class. Concepts include graphical methods, descriptive analyses of univariate and bivariate data, sampling, and experimental design. Students learn how to perform analyses using paper and pencil, and a statistical calculator, with an emphasis on the interpretation of results. The third mod is Data Analysis (MAT560D).

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Any of the following
1. B in either Algebra 2 or Math 3
2. C+ in Functions and Trigonometry (2 credits)
3. C- in any of Intensive Algebra 2, Math 4, Advanced Functions, or Functions and Trigonometry (3 credits)

Open to: 11, 12

Accelerated Statistics

The Accelerated Statistics course aims to help students understand basic statistical analysis. It covers similar content to Statistics (MAT510A) but moves nearly twice as fast. Topics studied include univariate analysis; graphs of single variables; bivariate analysis; graphs of two variables; probability; and probability distributions.

Students interested in applying the content learned in this course to a project of their own design can do so by taking the optional second mod, Data Analysis (MAT560D).

If taken as part of the IB SL Math Applications course, this course must follow the first two mods of that sequence; it is recommended that SL Applications students take this course in the exam year (typically 12th grade).

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-2.0

Prerequisite: One of the following
1. B+ in Functions and Trigonometry (2 credits)
2. C+ in Intensive Algebra 2, Math 4, Advanced Functions, or Functions and Trigonometry (3 credits)
3. C in [Advanced] Algebraic and Geometric Analysis
4. 2 credits in either Precalculus or Advanced Analysis

Open to: 10, 11, 12

AP Statistics

This course follows the College Board syllabus, which includes all of the topics covered in Accelerated Statistics plus concepts of variation, especially as related to statistical inference, sampling distributions, estimation and confidence intervals, and hypothesis testing at least through two-sample t-tests. Students learn how to perform analyses using paper and pencil, a statistical calculator, and the computer, with an emphasis on the interpretation of results. Class activities consist of lecture, problem solving, and group discussion, with a heavy emphasis on analytical discussion. The pace is rapid and the topics are complex. Students are expected to be inquisitive about data, analysis, and interpretation and to contribute their thoughts actively to class discussions.

Students interested in applying the content learned in this course to a project of their own design can do so by taking Data Analysis (MAT560D) at any time after completing the first mod (which is common to this class and both IB HL courses.)

Students--except those who have taken Accelerated Statistics (MATH511A) and earned a B or better--are required to complete a summer assignment in preparation for class.

Students enrolled in this course must sit for the AP exam.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: 2 credits in either Precalculus (B+) or Advanced Analysis (C)

Open to: 11, 12

Data Analysis

In this course (which can be taken multiple times), students apply their understanding of univariate and bivariate descriptive statistics to independent data analysis projects of their own design. Students use statistical software for calculations and graphs. Students also write final reports with an emphasis on clear communication of their findings. Additional topics in data collection and inference are taught as needed to support student work.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: Statistics (B), Accelerated Stats (B-), or the common IB HL/AP Statistics mod

Open to: 11, 12

Basic Tax Preparation

This course is cross-listed as MUL560T (Extradisciplinary). See MUL560T (Extradisciplinary) in the Extradisciplinary section of the catalog for description.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 10, 11, 12

IB SL Math: Analysis

The topics covered in this survey course are those of the IB SL Mathematics: Analysis and Approaches syllabus. The fundamentals of differential and integral calculus are covered. Topics include limits; continuity; understanding derivatives as functions, slopes, and rates of change; derivatives of polynomial, rational, trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions; analysis of graphs; optimization; related rates; rectilinear motion; anti-differentiation; the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus; integration by substitution; and applications of integration to the area, volume, rectilinear motion, and accumulation problems. Statistics topics introduced in Intensive Precalculus are reviewed and extended. These include discrete random variables and normal distributions. Students complete an IB mathematics exploration in this class. Strong algebraic and graphing skills are assumed.

Students who enroll in this course must sit for the IB exam.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: One of the following options:
1. Intensive Precalculus (B)
2. Advanced Precalculus with Discrete Math

Open to: 12

IB SL Math: Applications

The IB SL Mathematics Applications course aims to help students understand the world through a mathematical lens. This two-year course of study focuses on mathematical applications, with particular emphasis on the meaning of mathematics in context. The focus is on topics that are often used in applied situations or mathematical modelling. Topics studied include number and algebra; functions; geometry and trigonometry; statistics and probability; calculus. As their IB Internal Assessment, students complete a project--including a formal paper—usually with a statistical focus. A capacity for independent work is important to a student's success.

This course consists of six mods, the first of which is Advanced Functions (MAT310D). The next two mods, Intro to Calculus (MAT400A) and Accelerated Statistics (MAT511A), may be taken in either order. At least one of these two must be taken in 11th grade. The final three mods are unique to this course, and the first of these may be taken in either 11th or 12th grade. The final two mods must be taken in 12th grade.

Students who have already taken Intensive Algebra 2 or Math 4 (MAT140A) do not need the Advanced Functions mod. Students who have already taken AP Statistics do not need MAT511A.

Students who enroll in this course must sit for the IB exam.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 4.0-6.0

Prerequisite: Any of the following
1. Math 2 (4 credits, B+)
2. Math 3 (3 credits, C+)
3. Math 4 (3 credits, C)
4. Functions and Trigonometry (2 credits, B)
5. Advanced Functions (C)
6. Precalculus (1 credit)
7. Geometry (B) or Intensive Geometry with Trig (C), together with either Algebra 2 (2 credits, B) or Intensive Algebra 2 (1 credit, C)

Open to: 11, 12

IB HL Math: Applications

The IB Mathematics Applications and Interpretation course aims to help students understand the world through a mathematical lens, with particular emphasis on mathematical modeling and statistical analysis, both of which leverage the power of technology. This two-year course of study develops theory in order to tackle applications. As their IB Internal Assessment, students complete a project--including a formal paper--with a strong mathematical modeling focus. Topics studied include descriptive statistics, probability, inferential statistics, and Markov chains; calculus and differential equations; graphs and graph algorithms for trees, the traveling salesman problem and the Chinese postman problem; vectors, matrices, complex numbers, and linear algebra. This course assumes strong algebraic, function analysis, and graphing skills. Students with a desire to tackle practical, concrete problems in the areas of biology, ecology, economics, business, urban planning, and other applied domains will find the techniques developed in this class useful (and hopefully fulfilling!).

This course consists of five mods, the first three of which can be taken in any order. At least one of these first three mods must be taken in 11th grade. The final two-mod sequence is taken in 12th grade. One of the first three mods and the final two mods are specific to this course, the other two are the first mod of Calculus (MAT410A) and the common AP/IB HL statistics mod. Students who have already taken a calculus course do not need the calculus mod. Students who have already taken AP Statistics do not need the statistics mod.

Students who enroll in this course must sit for the IB exam.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 4.0-5.0

Prerequisite: 2 credits of either Precalculus (A-) or Advanced Analysis (B-)
[Prior to 22-23 these courses were called Intensive Precalculus and Advanced Precalculus with Discrete Math]

Open to: 11, 12

IB SL Math: Analysis

The topics covered in this two-year survey course are those of the IB SL Mathematics: Analysis and Approaches syllabus and include fundamentals of function analysis, trigonometry, differential and integral calculus, and statistics. Students are encouraged to appreciate the links between different concepts and branches of math. The course moves at a swift pace, with a focus on developing an in-depth understanding of concepts and using that understanding to solve abstract problems as well as those set within a specific context. There is a strong emphasis on the ability to construct, communicate and justify mathematical arguments. Students learn to discern situations in which technology can be a helpful tool in the solution of a problem. Students develop the skills needed to apply mathematics in other fields and continue their mathematical studies in other learning environments.

This course consists of six mods: the first two mods of Precalculus (MAT340A), the first mod of Calculus (MAT410A), Accelerated Statistics (MAT511A), and two mods specific to this course. The mods specific to this course must be the last mods taken. In these final two mods, in addition to covering additional content, students complete the IB Mathematics Exploration (which includes a paper of approximately 12-20 pages in length), and spend time on test preparation.

Students typically take both precalculus mods in 11th grade. (Students who had George School's Precalculus or Advanced Analysis in 10th grade do not need these mods.) The calculus mod can be taken any time after the precalculus mods and before the final two mods. (Students who take an AP Calculus course do not need the Calculus mod). The Accelerated Statistics mod can be taken at any time prior to the final two mods. (Students who take an AP Statistics course do not need the Accelerated Statistics mod.)

Students who enroll in this course must sit for the IB exam.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 4.0-6.0

Prerequisite: Any of the following
1. [Advanced] Algebraic and Geometric Analysis
2. Algebra 2 (A) with Intensive Geometry with Trig (B) or Geometry (A)
3. Intensive Algebra 2 (B) with Intensive Geometry with Trig (B) or Geometry (A)
4, Math 4 (B)
5. Functions and Trigonometry (2 credits, A, or 3 credits, B+)
6. Advanced Functions (B+)

Open to: 11, 12

IB HL Math: Analysis

This course covers topics from the IB HL Mathematics: Analysis and Approaches syllabus. Unlike a single-topic AP calculus or statistics exam, the IB HL Mathematics exam requires an advanced level of mastery of a wide range of mathematical topics and their interconnections. The HL Analysis curriculum is more abstract than the HL Applications curriculum, and less tied to modeling and technology. There is an emphasis on learning to understand, use, and appreciate the value of the precise technical language (definitions, theorems, etc.) of mathematics. Students are expected to work as mathematicians do in that they are asked frequently to try problems without having been explicitly taught how to find the solutions. Excellent algebraic, graphing, and organizational skills are assumed, as is a very good understanding of trigonometry.

This course begins with the common AP/IB HL Statistics mod, and--for those students coming from AB rather than BC Calculus-- a calulus mod, and ends with two mods comprising additional calculus and statistics topics, an IB exploration, and test preparation. The first two mods can be taken in either order. The final mod must be taken in 12th grade. The others may be taken in either 11th or 12th grade. The calculus mod must come after AB Calculus has been completed.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-4.0

Prerequisite: AP Calculus - AB (B) or AP Calculus - BC (B)

Open to: 11, 12

Linear Algebra

Linear algebra begins with a study of vectors, linear systems of equations, and matrices. Students develop the mathematical theory behind vector spaces, matrix factorizations, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors, and applications in dynamical systems, geometry, graph theory, least squares approximation, and more. Proof writing and use of technology (particularly for handling large datasets) are central to the course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-2.0

Prerequisite: Advanced Precalculus with Discrete Math (A), or Advanced Analysis (A), or AP Calculus BC (B)

Open to: 11, 12

Number Theory

Number theory is the branch of mathematics devoted primarily to studying the integers and integer-valued functions. Lauded as the “queen of mathematics” by none other than Karl Friedrich Gauss, number theory is a delight of pure mathematics with deep applications in cryptography and other computational realms. Students undertake the study of prime numbers, divisibility, Fermat’s little theorem, modular arithmetic, arithmetic functions, as well as generalizations of the integers and applications in cryptography. Emphasis is placed on proof writing, as well as the creation of computer algorithms intended to visualize and access the far reaches of the field.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-2.0

Prerequisite: Advanced Precalculus with Discrete Math (A), or Advanced Analysis (A), or AP Calculus BC (B)

Open to: 11, 12

Discrete Math – Combinatorics & Graph Theory

Discrete mathematics studies mathematical structures that are discrete in nature. This is the mathematics that underlies algorithms in computing. This course will study topics in combinatorics and graph theory, in particular: counting arguments and combinatorial proof, binomial coefficients, recurrence relations, generating functions, properties of graphs, graph algorithms, planar graphs, coloring, and matching problems. Topics will be approached through theoretical and computational lenses, with an emphasis on problem-solving.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-2.0

Prerequisite: Advanced Precalculus with Discrete Math (A), or Advanced Analysis (A), or AP Calculus BC (B)

Open to: 11, 12

AP Computer Science A

AP Computer Science A is an introductory course in computer science for those who already have some basic programming experience. The course emphasizes object-oriented programming methodology with a concentration on problem-solving and algorithm development and is the equivalent of a first-semester college-level course in computer science.

The central activity of the course is the design and implementation of computer programs to solve problems; the goal of the course is to develop and hone skills that are fundamental to the study of computer science. Creating computer programs is used as a context for introducing other important aspects of computer science, including the development and analysis of algorithms, the development and use of classes and fundamental data structures, the study of standard algorithms and typical applications, and the use of logic and formal methods. The responsible use of these systems is an integral part of the course.

The computer language studied is Java, as required by the AP curriculum. The prerequisites for entering this course include knowledge of algebra, a foundation of mathematical reasoning, and experience in problem-solving. In addition, because documentation plays a central role in the programming methodology, competence in written communication is a requirement.

Students who enroll in this course must sit for the AP Computer Science A exam.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Intensive Physical Computing and Robotics (A) or placement test

Open to: 11, 12

Advanced Programming: Artificial Intelligence

Advanced Programming: Artificial Intelligence is an advanced course in computer science for those who have ample mathematical and programming experience.

The first two mods of the course survey some of the common methodologies in artificial intelligence through project work and discussion of algorithms and theory. Students in this class implement computer programs that apply artificial intelligence techniques such as genetic algorithms, neural networks, decision trees, random forests, and others as time or interest warrants. The goal is to not merely use the various algorithms being discussed but to understand how they work so that improvements to them can be proposed and evaluated. Extensive programming proficiency is required.

Furthermore, discussion of the ethics and the responsible use of these systems is an integral part of the course. Topics to consider include: algorithmic biases, artificial intelligence vs. artificial consciousness, exploring how AI are developed differently in cultures, and the ramifications of those differences. A significant portion of the course is devoted to the understanding of formal logic. Topics include: natural language representation, syntax and semantics, truth tables, resolution, inference, propositional (sentential) logic, first-order (predicate) logic, and ontology construction. Reasoning about uncertain knowledge could be included pending time.

In the optional third mod, students apply their work and understanding from the previous mods to independent projects of their own design. Students can choose to dig deeper into AI or take this opportunity to pursue cross-disciplinary work. Examples of such work include: image analysis and creation with the arts, textual analysis of historical documents, applying AI to issues in social justice, and data mining of scientific, athletic, and/or medical (or other) datasets. Additional topics will be taught as needed to support student work.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-3.0

Prerequisite: AP Computer Science (A) and one of AB Calculus (A-), BC Calculus (B) or at least 3 credits in an IB HL math course (B)

Open to: 12

Science & Literature

In this course, students explore the relationship between literature and science and investigate how the knowledge about the environment and the interconnectivity in nature affects the ways we tell stories. The course is co-taught by an English and a biology teacher. While the English component deals with elements of language and fiction, the biology portion explores the scientific concepts present in the novel. Together, the class investigates what determines the separation between fields of knowledge (namely, here, humanities and sciences) and what happens when we examine the same object through the lenses of different fields. Classes involve discussions, group work, close reading of texts, and lab and field observations.

This course is cross-listed as ENG550C (English) and SCI310L (Science).

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: 1 credit of either Biology or Intensive Biology

Open to: 11, 12

Exploration of Memoir

Memoir is an age-old genre that has transformed over centuries. This service learning and English elective course explores the discipline through reading, writing, and service. The goal of the course is to expose students to the power of stories and help them find their own authentic writer’s voice. How? By deeply connecting with the human experience through service work with a senior living at a local assisted living facility (and writing their memoir), reading and viewing stories about others’ diverse life experiences, and communicating a piece of their own life story through a personal memoir. Oral, written, and visual communication will all be used as modes of expression and discovery. The best way to acquire self-knowledge is through exploration and experimentation, and this memoir study allows students to do both.

Each week, students read multiple short memoirs, complete a personal memoir writing assignment, and work on their senior’s memoir. The service component of this course occurs once a week during class time. Successful completion of this course fulfills George School's service requirement. A passion for storytelling, reading, and community are all ingredients for success in this elective.

This course is cross-listed as ENG520A (English).

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Basic Tax Preparation

This course provides students with the opportunities to gain an understanding of taxation, develop the vital life skill of how to "do” taxes, and make a difference in their community. Students will learn how to complete a basic tax return, with an understanding of tax law and the available tools. The topics are defined by the basic level for the IRS Volunteer Income Tax Assistance and Tax Counseling for the Elderly (VITA/TCE) programs. Students who pass the required certification assessments are likely to be able to use their new skills to fulfill the George School service requirement later in the year or in a subsequent year. This service involves helping low- to moderate-income individuals and families, persons with disabilities, the elderly, and limited-English speakers who need assistance preparing and filing their tax returns.

This course is cross-listed as MAT560M (Math).

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Producing Peace: Civic Media Literacy & Production

This course equips students with 21st century media literacy skills necessary to be critical consumers and active producers of media so that they may productively engage in civic dialogue and global citizenship. Specifically, students learn and apply the five core concepts of media literacy, which will help students understand who is making the media and why, what the media wants you to do and feel, and how it accomplishes those ends. Using historical and contemporary case studies of media, such as historical artifacts, news articles, documentaries, podcasts, PSAs, propaganda, social media, and memes, students explore how various modes of storytelling have the capacity to create conflict, and more importantly, facilitate peace. In line with Quaker core values, this class is framed around the query: How can I use media to improve the world in which I live? To explore this query, students learn how to produce their own media through a series of projects that demonstrate how media can be used as a tool to produce greater empathy, compassion, and justice in our world.

This course is cross-listed as ARP220P (Arts) and HIS770P (History).

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Peruvian Past and Culture

In this combined course and immersion trip, students experience the richness of Peruvian culture, from the beginning of its history as the oldest civilization in the Americas to its modern-day reputation for world-renowned cuisine. The evolution of Peruvian culture reflects its vast geographic diversity: “la sierra," “la selva,” y “la costa." The course includes a historical overview, the study of indigenous communities, Peruvian literature, contemporary culture, environmental issues, and the development of sociocultural competence in preparation for a meaningful in-country immersion experience. This course meets for one arrangement in Term 7 and is followed by a trip to Peru in June.

This course is cross-listed as SPA820P (Language).

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: Intensive Spanish 3 and parental consent

Open to: 11, 12

A Brief History of Vietnam

This course meets for one arrangement in Term 7 and is followed by a trip to Vietnam in June.

Students in this course explore the modern history of Vietnam--beginning with the "mission civilisatrice" in the 1880s and focus on the relationship between the United States and Vietnam in the 20th century. Readings are drawn from authors such as Max Hastings, Christopher Goscha, Spencer Tucker, Lt. Gen. Harold Moore, and Ho Chi Minh. Students visit the New Jersey Vietnam Era Museum in the United States and the Hoa Lo Prison (Hanoi Hilton) in Vietnam. Students also meet with members of Project Renew and work in orphanages where children still suffer from the effects of Agent Orange.

Students earn 1 credit in history and fulfill their service requirement. This course is crosslisted as HIS880V (History).

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Navajo Culture & Spirituality (in Arizona)

This course meets for one arrangement in Term 7 and is followed by a trip to Arizona in June. Students who would like to have the option to register for this course must submit the parental consent form and an application by noon on the last day of classes before Holiday Break in the preceding academic year.

Students earn 1 credit in religions and fulfill their service requirement. This course is cross-listed as REL880A (Religions).

(This course will not be offered in 2022-23.)

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Economics & Sustainability (in the Netherlands)

This course is an immersive experience in Term 2 (October) and includes travel to the Netherlands.

As part of this experience, students earn 2 history credits by completing Introduction to Economics [HIS450A] and Social Science of Climate Change [HIS770L] over the course of this immersive term.

During the travel portion of the course, students explore how planners, engineers, policymakers, individuals, and communities are working to adapt to the realities of climate change. Using the Netherlands as a case study, students examine what economic incentives policy makers, private businesses, and citizens are using to change behaviors. Putting our ideas into practice, we do much of our travel in the Netherlands via bicycle.

(This course will not be offered in 2022-23.)

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-2.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Vergil’s Aeneid (in Rome)

This course is an immersive experience in Term 4 (January - early February), including travel to Rome.

As part of this experience, students earn 1 credit in Latin (which can be used toward credit for Latin 3 or Latin 4, though students planning to sit for an IB exam will still need all standard mods) and 1 credit in English, which juniors and senior can use as the elective mod of their English sequence.

The goals of this course include reading, appreciating, and analyzing Vergil’s Aeneid in English and using it to develop the skills of discussion, close reading, literary analysis, and writing. Students establish an understanding of the craft of translation, comparing published English translations of the text and composing their own. They also enhance their translating skills while learning about the legends and history of Rome’s founding, the historical events surrounding the Aeneid’s composition, and other historical episodes relevant to the Aeneid by reading excerpts of other texts in Latin. In the weeks leading up to departure, students will work on building the physical stamina for walking long distances and hiking while abroad. During the travel segment of the course, students trace a portion of Aeneas’ journey in the Mediterranean ending up in Rome where we visit relevant archeological sites, art and history museums, and read Latin inscriptions in situ. Since the Aeneid is the story of a group of Trojans seeking refuge following the fall of Troy, this course also explores the myth and history of the founding of Rome and reflect on how modern-day Italians connect to their historical past in light of the most recent refugee crisis.

This course is cross-listed as LAT930R (Language) and MUL930R (Extradisciplinary).

(This course will not be offered in 2022-23.)

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-2.0

Prerequisite: Latin 2 and a 10th grade English class

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Transformative Justice

This course is an immersive experience. It meets for the full school day every day in the term.

This course explores contemporary topics in the prison abolition movement. It also provides an historic overview of the role of incarceration in the development of the modern world. Students learn how literature serves as a lifeline for incarcerated people and how literary expression is used as a vehicle for change. Students read the work of abolitionist poets, incarcerated writers, and volunteer with transformative justice organizations in the Philadelphia area. Workshops and trainings will include strategies in anti-violence organizing, grassroots publishing, and political advocacy. Field trips to Philadelphia and the surrounding areas help students understand the impact of mass incarceration on communities. Volunteer opportunities include shipping and packing books with Books Through Bars and supporting advocacy with Youth Art and Self-Empowerment Project and the Coalition to Abolish Death by Incarceration. Students are expected to maintain a journal in which they take notes, write reflections, and imagine a gentle world. At the end of four weeks of coursework, volunteer work, and workshops, students take a four-day retreat to understand the role of self-care in activist work and begin to imagine their final projects. Then, in the final week of the course, students conduct research and complete a traditional essay or creative project to build on and respond to their learning experience. Students may also conceive an advocacy campaign that directly supports the work of an abolitionist organization.

Students earn 1 credit in history, 1 credit in English, and fulfill their service requirement. IB students will be able to use this experience for CAS project.

This course is cross-listed as HIS980X (History) and ENG980X (English).

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-2.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Storytelling for Social Justice (in Greece)

This course is an immersive experience in Term 2 (October), including travel to Greece.

This course explores: (1) the history of storytelling (myth, oration, theater, etc.) in Ancient Greece and its impact on human belief and relationships, with an exploration of how storytelling can forge relationships and reinforce ethical behaviors, (2) the current refugee crisis and its human impact, (3) media-making and journalism, equipping students with the tools they need to tell their own stories for social change. Students develop an academic foundation of storytelling and its history, an in-depth understanding of the political and social factors contributing to the refugee crisis, with a specific focus on the media's impact on how we view issues in the refugee crisis, as well as the role NGOs and individuals play in humanitarian aid. Students explore photography, graphic design, podcasting, and filmmaking as powerful media for sharing stories. Students travel to Athens to reinforce and deepen this learning and volunteer with Love Without Borders for Refugees in Need, the Greek Forum for Refugees, and Shedia to learn firsthand about refugee experiences, the power of art to connect and educate people, and the role of constructive journalism.

Students earn 1 credit in history, 1 credit in art, and fulfill their service requirement.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-2.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

South Africa: Art, Ecology & Social Justice

This course is an immersive experience in Term 4 (January to early February), including travel to South Africa, so students choosing this course will not be able to participate in winter sports or performances. Students who would like to have the option to register for this course must submit the parental consent form by noon on the last day of classes before Holiday Break in the preceding academic year.

Students earn 1 credit in science, 1 credit in art, and fulfill their service requirement.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-2.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Contemporary East African Society and Conservation

This course is an immersive experience in Term 4 (January to early February), including travel to Uganda.

This course immerses George School students in Ugandan life by enrolling in courses taught by George School faculty at Awegys Secondary School in Kigo, Uganda. Students attend school with their Ugandan peers over a 3-week period, working collaboratively on inquiry-based, interdisciplinary projects that expose both cohorts of students to opinions and experiences outside their own. Broadly, students take courses in science and the humanities that focus on the intersection of the human condition and the ecological stability of East Africa. Students also partake in meaningful service work determined by our host’s needs and wants. All courses are complemented by co-curricular activities and excursions outside the school to enhance classroom learning and provide intercultural understanding. Students will also participate in real-world, hands-on ecological field work studying gorillas in Bwindi Impenetrable Forest and lions and hippos in Queen Elizabeth National Park.

Students earn 1 credit in science, 1 credit in history, and fulfill their service requirement.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-2.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Storytelling for Social Justice (in Greece)

This course meets for one arrangement in Term 7 and is followed by a trip to Greece in June.

(Students who hope to travel to Greece during the academic year rather than in June should register for MUL990G instead of this course.)

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Wildlife Conservation & Ecology in Uganda

This course meets for one arrangement in Term 7 and is followed by a trip to Uganda in June.

This course centers on learning to do quality field research in Uganda’s varied biomes. Students travel through national parks and reserves and visit historical sites. Students spend much of the time in Queen Elizabeth National Park or Murchison Falls National Park, with visits to Bwindi Impenetrable Forest National Park. Students are mentored by local and international academics, conservation managers, and other practitioners in ecology and conservation. By designing research projects with their teacher, students contribute meaningful scientific data to issues faced by managers working in East African Conservation. Students also partake in meaningful service work determined by our host’s needs and wants

Students earn 1 credit in science and fulfill their service requirement. (Students who hope to travel to Uganda during the academic year rather than in June should register for MUL990U instead of this course.)

This course is cross-listed as SCI-880U (Science).

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Senior Reflection

Students take all mods of this nontraditional course in Term 7. The focus is on reflecting, giving back, and looking forward. The structure of the course provides time for seniors to prepare for and sit for their AP and IB exams, opportunities for service on and off campus, opportunities to plan for and participate in celebratory end-or-year activities, and sessions focused on preparing for life as a college student and as an adult.

IB Diploma Candidates should register for IB Core: Reflection (MUL-997Z) instead of this course. (Many experiences are shared between the two courses.) All other seniors must register for one mod of this course, and the School Office may register students for additional mods based on students' registrations for external exams.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 12

IB Core: Reflection

All three mods of this nontraditional course take place in Term 7. The focus is on providing structure as students review for and take IB exams and includes opportunities to reflect on the IB and George School experience, to plan for and participate in celebratory activities, to participate in service both on campus and off, and to prepare for life after George School.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 12

Physics

This course helps students discover physical laws firsthand, at a pace that allows for the development of required mathematical concepts. Major concepts covered include kinematics, laws of motion, energy, momentum, gravity, circular motion, electricity, magnetism, and electrical circuits. Frequent lab experiments are performed during class.
Students interested in taking an IB or AP Physics course in the future should take Intensive Physics instead of this course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Math 3 or an Algebra 2 course or Intensive Geometry with Trigonometry. In addition, 10th graders wishing to enroll must have earned either a B in Chemistry or a B- in Intensive Chemistry.

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Intensive Physics

This course helps students discover physical laws firsthand, at a pace that requires mastery of algebra and trigonometry. Major concepts covered include kinematics, laws of motion, energy, momentum, gravity, circular motion, electricity, magnetism, and electrical circuits. Topics are presented at a deeper level in order to prepare students for future study in International Baccalaureate (IB) and Advanced Placement (AP) physics courses. Frequent lab experiments are performed during class.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Intensive Algebra 2 (B+) or Math 4 (B+) or Algebraic and Geometric Analysis (C). In addition, 10th graders wishing to enroll must have earned either an A in Chemistry or a B+ in Intensive Chemistry. Juniors and seniors need to have earned a B in a biology or chemistry course.

Prerequisite for ’22-’23: Intensive Algebra 2 (B+) or Intensive Geometry with Trigonometry (A-) or Advanced Algebraic and Geometry Analysis (C). In addition, 10th graders wishing to enroll must have earned either an A in Chemistry or a B+ in Intensive Chemistry. Juniors and seniors need to have earned a B in a biology or chemistry course.

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Astrophysics

In this course, students explore the basics of astronomy and other subjects related to physics. We examine our solar system, stellar lifecycles, and the structure and creation of the universe. Topics will align with the IB curriculum and may include: spectral lines, special relativity, and even recent breakthroughs on gravitational waves.

This class is available to juniors & seniors who have previously learned Newton’s laws of motion and forces. Current enrollment in precalculus or an equivalent class is highly encouraged. Students should expect to participate in labs, analyze real astronomical data, and partake in nighttime observations when weather permits.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: 2 credits of physics

Open to: 11, 12

IB SL Physics

This course prepares students for the International Baccalaureate Standard Level (SL) exam, as well as algebra-based physics at the college level. Substantial time is spent in the laboratory. Topics include mechanics, thermal physics, waves, electricity and magnetism, circular motion and gravitation, atomic, nuclear and particle physics, and energy production. Students must have mastered multi-variable algebra, trigonometry, logarithms, and exponents. Students should be familiar with vectors and mathematical modeling of data. All students must also complete a 10-hour independent research project. All students enrolled in the course are required to take the IB exam.

The course is split over two years, with at least two mods taken in 12th grade.

Taking the IB SL Physics exam is a requirement of this course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 4.0-4.0

Prerequisite: 2 credits of Intensive Physics (B)

Open to: 11, 12

IB HL Physics

This course prepares students for the International Baccalaureate Higher Level (HL) exam, as well as algebra-based physics at the college level. Substantial time is spent in the laboratory. Topics include mechanics, thermal physics, waves, electricity and magnetism, circular motion and gravitation, atomic, nuclear, and particle physics, and energy production. Students must have mastered multi-variable algebra, trigonometry, logarithms, and exponents. Students should be familiar with vectors and mathematical modeling of data. All students must also complete a 10-hour independent research project.

In 2022-23 ONLY, the first mod of this course will be an intensive introduction to physics for those who have not taken Intensive Physics. Students who have taken Intensive Physics do not take this first mod. (In subsequent years, this will be a 6-mod course for everyone.)

Taking the external IB HL Physics exam is a requirement of this course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 6.0-7.0

Prerequisite:
For the class of '25 and following: Intensive Physics (3 credits, A-) plus Math 3 (A-) or a precalculus course or Advanced Analysis concurrently
For the class of '24: Intensive Physics (A-); plus Intensive Geometry with Trigonometry (A-) or a precalculus class concurrently

Open to: 11, 12

AP Physics C Mechanics

This highly demanding 2-mod course follows the syllabus of the AP Physics C-Mechanics exam, preparing students for calculus-based physics at the university level. Topics include Newton’s laws of motion, work, energy, linear momentum, circular motion, rotation, and oscillations. Students learn how to solve complex physics problems using differential and integral calculus. Students must have mastered multi-variable algebra, trigonometry, vectors, logarithms, exponents, and mathematical modeling of data with and without a graphing calculator, as well as basic differentiation and integration.

Taking the AP Physics C: Mechanics exam is a requirement of this course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-2.0

Prerequisite: Intensive Physics (A-); plus AP Calculus - AB, or at least one mod of either Calculus or AP Calculus - BC
Prerequisite for '22-23: Intensive Physics (A-); plus AP Calculus - AB, or AP Calculus - BC, or IB Calculus SL

Open to: 11, 12

AP Physics C Electricity & Magnetism

This highly demanding 2-mod course follows the AP Physics C-Electricity & Magnetism syllabus, preparing students for calculus-based physics at the university level. Topics include electrostatics, conductors, capacitors, dielectrics, inductance, electric circuits, magnetic fields, and electromagnetism. Students learn how to solve complex physics problems using differential and integral calculus. Students must have mastered multi-variable algebra, trigonometry, vectors, logarithms, exponents, basic differentiation and integration, and mathematical modeling of data with and without a graphing calculator.

Taking the AP Physics C: Electricity & Magnetism exam is a requirement of this course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-2.0

Prerequisite: 2 credits of Intensive Physics; plus AP Calculus - AB, or at least one mod of either Calculus or AP Calculus - BC
Prerequisite '22-'23: Intensive Physics (A-); plus AP Calculus - AB, or AP Calculus - BC, or IB Calculus SL

Open to: 11, 12

Essentials of a Friends Community

This course is required of all ninth graders. Students are introduced to life at George School and to the application of Quaker practices as a framework for living. There is an emphasis on the Quaker testimonies of Simplicity, Peace, Integrity, Community, Equality, and Stewardship (“SPICES”). Through a combination of classroom activities and experiential learning, students learn about living responsibly in a Quaker community. EFC is one of the places in the GS academic program in which a student is invited and expected to consider their own life’s journey, personal experiences, and values as part of the curriculum. Toward the end of the course, students are introduced to the study of religion and religions as human endeavors.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9

Faith, Responsibility & Sustainability

This course, taken late in the 9th grade year, builds on the student learnings from Essentials of a Friends Community (REL100A) and experiences as George School students in the interim, has two main components: a) Field trips to a local farm, where students engage in experiential learning about agriculture, land stewardship, entrepreneurship, and community, in ways that connect and examine these themes through a Quaker lens; and b) School-based learning about some of the world’s major religious traditions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, Islam – and how they have made sense of people’s efforts to live a meaningful and good life. Students study, learn, and explore topics related to the theme of how various traditions connect community, food, faith, justice, and the Earth.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-2.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9

Holistic Health

This required sophomore course allows students to explore dimensions of health and wellness that are developmentally appropriate for 16-year-olds, as an area of knowledge as well as a set of practical life skills. Topics include psychological health, spiritual wholeness, alcohol, marijuana, other drugs, social media, and human sexuality. Students use factual information to engage in ethical decision-making with an emphasis on personal responsibility. The course develops the skills of synthesizing information and concepts, working collaboratively, discussing abstract and controversial topics, writing reflectively and critically, and applying information within different contexts. The course employs a variety of teaching methods including lectures, multimedia presentations, role-plays, and a great deal of class discussion. Assignments include reading, journal writing, in-class presentations, and small-group research projects. Woven throughout the course are opportunities for students to explore specific spiritual and wellness practices, and to cultivate positive habits of mind and of heart.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 10

Studies in Spirituality, Religions & Integrity

Any three or more of the following 1-credit courses constitute the course Studies in Spirituality, Religions & Integrity:

• Becoming An Adult: Finding Your Purpose in Life (REL410F)
• Buddhism For Beginners (REL410L)
• Embodied Mindfulness (REL420F)
• Feeding the Dimensions of your Health - Let’s Go Al Fresco! (REL420R)
• Living Large: Spiritual Design in Small-Space Living (REL430F)
• Meaning of Myth (REL430L)
• Origin Stories: Why Is There Something & Not Nothing (REL430R)
• Peace Studies (REL440F)
• The Power and Paradox of Forgiveness (REL440R)
• Race, Reparation, and Identity (REL440R)
• Spiritual Practices for Well-Being (REL450L)
• Theory of Knowledge (REL450R)
• World Religions (REL460F)

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-6.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Becoming An Adult: Finding Your Purpose in Life

This course allows older students to examine their core values which impact all areas of their future lives. To know and understand our values is the first step in making values-based decisions, which allows us to live our lives with integrity. To apply those values to behaviors is the next crucial step in living with integrity. This is especially important as adolescents move into independence while figuring out who they are, what they want, and how their values influence their future. Key questions that inform this course include:
• Why is values-based decision making important?
• What brings me joy and satisfaction in life?
• How can I create meaning in my life?
• What makes me feel satisfied and proud of myself?
• How do I define success?
• Which values do I feel I most always honor?
• Which values might I be willing to compromise, and why?
• How do I handle conflicting values?
• How do I use my values to influence my decisions and help guide me through a meaningful life?

A core text is The Big Picture: A Guide to Finding Your Purpose in Life, by Dr. Christine B Whelan. Students engage in readings, viewings, discussions, and journaling, all of which help them develop their own systems for engaging with the driving questions of this course more constructively.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Buddhism for Beginners

The Buddha taught that the way to free the mind from suffering is through gaining insight into what truly is. This course will examine the basic tenets of Buddhism with an aim for allowing students to learn some basic practices, principles, and applications for the modern world. One need not become a Buddhist to gain insight about what it means to live a good life, to help relieve suffering, or to nurture one’s spiritual needs. In addition to readings by influential teachers such as Jack Kornfield, Pema Chödrön, and Stephen Batchelor, along with Tricycle magazine, our regular practices may include Dharma discussions, vipassana meditation, mindfulness, and yoga. When practical, we will visit the Bucks County Sangha and meet with other practitioners and local teachers, as well as invite them to come to our classroom to share their wisdom with us directly.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Embodied Mindfulness

There is a longstanding bias built into western religious thinking, which positions the spirit against the body. That is, those things which are uplifting to the spirit are separate from those things which are satisfying to the body. This schism of body and spirit has caused a great deal of unnecessary suffering. Embodied Mindfulness is a course designed to reconcile this schism, and to help students to learn to get centered and stay centered in their bodies. Various traditions offer powerful insights and practices and to help in this healing work. Drawing from labyrinth-walking practice, yoga, martial arts, and Vipassana meditation, this course equips students with a variety of tools to help them experience their bodies as allies in the spiritual journey. At the same time, this course engages students in rigorous practices of coming home to their physical selves. Students engage in and study practices that affirm that the mind, the body, and the spirit are actually three facets of the same unity.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Feeding the Dimensions of Your Health: Let’s Go Al Fresco!

In a world driven to put too much on our plates, we need to learn how to gain back the parts of ourselves that are often lost. What better way to find yourself than to take a journey outside? Over the past twenty years, a growing body of research has shown the positive impacts on our brains, bodies, feelings, thought processes, and social interactions when we engage with the outdoors. These positive impacts can result in greater happiness and health, and have even more surprising benefits such as generosity, humility, greater creativity, and a sense of wonder. In this course, students will be guided along a journey of experiential learning and mindfulness through a variety of outdoor adventures, fitness-based activities, and spiritual practices focusing on all of the dimensions of our health. Daily movement and meditative practices complement the outdoor adventures. As part of this course, students also read a variety of perspectives on experiences with nature.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Living Large: Spiritual Design in Small Space Living

As an intentional community founded on Quaker testimonies of simplicity, equality/equity, and stewardship of the earth, George School has been a champion of social justice movements. The recent focus on our impact on the environment and being mindful of our footprint is one such movement. What better place to start to understand these relationships than with the concept of “home”? In the course of exploring the tiny house movement, this class focuses on philosophical foundations, grant and proposal writing, and design. Students leave this course with a design plan for their own tiny home.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: 1 mod of 11th grade English

Open to: 11, 12

Meaning of Myth

This course explores the universality and evolution of myths throughout human history. Students investigate the reappearance of common motifs that portray eternal truths about mankind with particular focus on the mythologies of indigenous peoples. We explore such topics as the hero’s adventure, creation stories, God vs. Nature, initiation rituals, transcendence of death, the center of the world (axis mundis), and association with the infinite. Additionally, we examine the ways myths continue to influence popular culture such as Star Wars or the Harry Potter series.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Origin Stories: Why is There Something & Not Nothing?

Since the dawn of consciousness, human beings have pondered the mystery of existence: Why is there something and not nothing? From this question, grounded in wonder and awe, flow the headwaters of many of the world’s religious, philosophic, and scientific traditions. Every society has an “origin” story that attempts to answer this question, and in so doing, situate humankind in the cosmos. This class will examine origin stories from around the world and through the ages: from the Hebrew Biblical story of Genesis to Pangu – a primordial being in Chinese mythology – to the Cherokee sky-world of Gälûñ’lätï, to our modern scientific origin story of the Big Bang and the birth of the universe 13.8 billion years ago. What do these stories have in common? What do they tell us about ourselves, and our place in the cosmos? We are all of us stardust, forged in the furnace of a distant stellar explosion. Or aren’t we?

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Peace Studies

This course is an introduction to active nonviolence and nonviolent conflict resolution. We begin by studying the emergence of nonviolence in Western thought by reading Thoreau, Gandhi, Dorothy Day, and Martin Luther King, Jr. We use the Global Nonviolent Action Database as a tool for identifying and exploring successful campaigns around the world. We consider the groundbreaking work of Erica Chenoweth, who is widely recognized for having “proved Gandhi right.” We examine several contemporary issues including the influence of feminism, the death penalty, the Danish and South African resistance movements, and, finally, resistance to mass incarceration and the successful activism of the Earth Quaker Action Team.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

The Power and Paradox of Forgiveness

At the heart of forgiveness lies a paradox: if you are culpable for what you did and therefore deserve to be punished rather than forgiven for it, then you will always be culpable for what you did. Forgiveness plays no role in righting the wrong. And yet, the acts of forgiving and being forgiven are essential to a building a compassionate society, facilitating reconciliation, and recognizing the potential for personal growth. In this course, students explore this paradox as well as the power that comes from acceptance. How can one forgive the person but not the act itself? Are there acts that are beyond forgiveness? Can one be forgiven without showing remorse? Can someone forgive on behalf of others? Students gain insight through a series of readings such as The Sunflower, by Simon Wiesenthal, as well as films and other texts. Students develop a comprehensive understanding of the concept of reconciliation, particularly the necessity of empathy and humanity in the process. We also explore the difference between interpersonal justice and criminal justice.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Race, Reparation & Identity

Racial and ethnic identity are variously and divergently interpreted and understood in the United States and elsewhere, frequently in ways that perpetuate pre-existing norms of power and privilege. As such, many well-intentioned people in American society are uncomfortable talking about race, ethnicity, class, religion, or level of education with people outside of their own perceived groups. A primary goal of this course is to enhance our inner selves by opening the doors leading to analytic and honest discussion about these intersecting aspects of our contemporary identities. We strive to discuss aspects of race and racial identity that often get overlooked in conversations around equality, diversity, equity, and inclusion.

In this course we read theoretical and ethnographic writings about the ways in which these identity elements operate. Readings from W.E.B. DuBois, James Baldwin, Ta-Nehisi Coates, and Mica Pollock frame our discussion. We add the human, existential, and visceral dimensions that have afflicted racialized slaves of the Americas as well the more recent descendants of those racialized slaves. For example, we ask in this course:

Why are Black and brown people in the United States still lagging behind others in home ownership, skilled labor-readiness, and access to ancestral wealth?

In what ways do non-Black people benefit from the history of mass racialized enslavement of Black people in America?

Where do notions of God, religion, and brother/sister-hood fit into this discourse, in regards to how we understand struggle, sacrifice, and salvation?

This is a course of exploration, self-exploration, and spiritual nurture. Students are encouraged to re-imagine some aspects of history and of themselves, to acknowledge overlooked realities of economics and politics, and to consider some new and some old insights into race, reparation, and healing.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Spiritual Practices for Well Being

Students in Spiritual Practices learn how to cultivate a richer inner awareness and a refined clarity of expression through the use of time-honored and empirically-supported contemplative and reflective exercises and activities. With the aim of developing greater attentional abilities, emotional intelligence, ethical decision-making skills, and self-awareness, this course builds on George School’s own Holistic Health curriculum, Quaker Faith & Practice, Roger Walsh’s Essential Spirituality: The 7 Central Practices to Awaken Heart, Jack Kornfield’s A Path With Heart, and programs developed by the Center for Contemplative Mind in Society, Contemplative Studies at Brown University, and the Learning to BREATHE curriculum, as well as various other religious, secular, and scholarly sources. Spiritual Practices emphasizes an experiential and embodied approach to social-emotional, ethical, and contemplative learning that is consistent with George School’s mission and the values of Friends education. This course offers students an opportunity to slow down and reflect on what really matters in their education and in their life, and to develop personal practices and habits that support that approach.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Theory of Knowledge

This one-mod philosophy course encourages critical thinking about knowledge itself. Students ask and answer questions like these: What counts as knowledge? How is knowledge created? What are its limits? In other words, the focus is on how we know, rather than on what we know. The goals for students in this course are: 1) to gain an understanding of what it means to know something as a scientist, an artist, a mathematician, a philosopher, etc.; 2) to appreciate how the forms of knowledge relate to one another; and 3) to practice thinking and writing critically.

Students in the IB diploma program must take the 5-mod IB Theory of Knowledge course, not this course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: None

Open to: 11, 12

World Religions

This course explores some of the most impactful religious traditions of our world: Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The historical origins, central teachings, devotional practices, and contemporary challenges within each religion are considered in relation to common themes of human experience: the divine or sacred; suffering; ethics; love and compassion; wisdom and justice; death and beyond. The goals of the course are: to facilitate understanding of the essential claims of these influential religions; to identify similarities and differences of thought and practice among the traditions; and to help students articulate their own religious and spiritual attitudes and orientations. Some key questions that we are likely to engage include: What is meant by “religion” and how is it different from “culture” and “spirituality?” Why is it important to study religions, especially including ones we don’t follow? How have the religions we study in this course shaped how people think and behave, individually and collectively?

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

IB SL World Religions

In International Baccalaureate (IB) World Religions, students study a number of living world religions in an inquiring, open-minded, and empathetic way. The scope of the course is both broad and intensive, beginning with a survey of four world religions and then moving into an in-depth study of two; the selection and sequence of the survey and in-depth studies are at the discretion of the teacher but will be chosen from Hinduism, Buddhism, Daoism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Other traditions such as Yoruba, Confucianism, and atheism may be included after the exam. In this course, world religions are studied in such a way that students will acquire a sense of what it is like to belong to a particular religion and how that influences the way in which the followers of that religion understand and act in the world. The experiential dimension to learning is of great importance and so field trips and visits from outside speakers are emphasized. Students conduct an independent investigative study of any topic related to religious belief and practice, including those outside the curriculum, and be prepared for the IB World Religions SL exam.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Final grades of B+ in at least two courses in English, history, language, math, or science in the year preceding that in which IB World Religions is to be taken or enrollment in the full IB Diploma Program.

Open to: 11, 12

IB Core: Inquiry

This one-module course is taken by IB Diploma Candidates at the beginning of their junior year and introduces them to the requirements of the Diploma Program, specifically the core elements: the Extended Essay (EE), Creativity, Activity, Service (CAS), and Theory of Knowledge (TOK). This module provides foundational knowledge for the next two years and offers students the opportunity to begin applied practice of the IB core elements.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: None

Open to: 11

Theory of Knowledge: Exhibition

"How do we know what we know?" Theory of Knowledge is a course in applied epistemology (the philosophy of knowledge) where students undergo deep critical thinking about how we produce knowledge, its relationship to values, and how we communicate our beliefs and opinions. They consider how concepts like truth, objectivity, evidence, and certainty might vary across academic disciplines, and how different perspectives can lead us to draw different conclusions about the world.

Theory of Knowledge: Exhibition consists of 2 modules. They focus on developing an exhibition of objects with accompanying commentaries that explores how TOK manifests in the world around us.

IB Diploma candidates and anyone who wants 4 credits in IB Theory of Knowledge (must be taken over 2 years) should register for REL627C instead of this course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-2.0

Prerequisite: Final grades of B+ in at least two courses in English, history, language, math, or science in the year preceding that in which IB ToK is to be taken or enrollment in the full IB Diploma Program.

Open to: 11, 12

IB Theory of Knowledge

IB Theory of Knowledge is distinct from Theory of Knowledge in that students will enroll in four modules over their junior and senior years and will complete the TOK Exhibition and TOK Essay assessments which satisfy the IB Core Course requirement.

This course is required for all IB Diploma Candidates. Students who are interested in Theory of Knowledge but do who do not want to take the full IB Theory of Knowledge course should take either the one-mod Theory of Knowledge (REL450R) course or the two-mod Theory of Knowledge: Exhibition (REL620A) course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 4.0-4.0

Prerequisite: Final grades of B+ in at least two courses in English, history, language, math, or science in the year preceding that in which IB ToK is to be taken or enrollment in the full IB Diploma Program.

Open to: 11, 12

Navajo Culture and Spirituality (in Arizona)

This course is cross-listed as MUL881S (Extradisciplinary). See MUL881S (Extradisciplinary) in the Extradisciplinary section of the catalog for description.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Introduction to STEAM

This single mod course introduces the students to some of the STEAM technologies used in many of our other courses in a fun and creative way. Students have an opportunity to create and fabricate on our 3D printers and laser cutters. We then apply some of these new skills with interactive demonstrations and experiments in physics, chemistry, electronics and computer science.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Physical Computing & Robotics

This is a largely self-directed and flexible course that is project-oriented and driven significantly by student interests. During the three mods, students develop experience with basic programming in C, circuit design and breadboarding, LED lighting effects, sensors, motors, servo control, 3D printing, and laser cutting. When we get to the robotics portion in mod 2, each student will have their own robot to work with. Once the student has shown an understanding of programming basics, CAD design, and electronics, they are on their own to create, build and program one or more robotic applications that will perform some autonomous task, usually incorporating simple feedback control systems. Students will display their projects during the Interactive Robotics Open House, which takes place at the end of the academic year. Students who are uncomfortable applying science and mathematics to everyday situations may find this course will provide practical and relevant ways to help refine and augment their own knowledge of science and mathematics. This course fulfills the physical science requirement. Students take the following modules in order, and students who have successfully completed AP Computer Science may begin with the second module rather than the first.

Introduction to Physical Computing: Module 1
In the first module of the Physical Computing and Robotics class series, students focus mostly on C++ coding techniques and hardware interactions used with embedded controllers. Students build circuits using breadboards and printed circuits to work with LED lighting effects, sensors, motors, displays, audio emitters, and other devices.

Sensing the World with Robotics: Module 2
In the second term of the Physical Computing and Robotics class series, students focus on the integration of electronic sensory devices into mobile autonomous robotics. Each student has their own robot to work with. Once the student has shown an understanding of programming basics, CAD design, and electronics, they are on their own to create, build, and program one or more robotic applications that will perform some autonomous tasks.

Independent Projects in Physical Computing: Module 3
In the third term of the Physical computing and robotics class series, students focus on building a custom creation blending all available resources of the previous two terms. The sky is not the limit but, just another challenge in this module. Students get an opportunity to challenge themselves to create devices that incorporate embedded controllers into a plethora of creations from autonomous drones and submarines to wearable fashions and game controllers, it’s up to the student to design and prototype a show worthy system or device.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: any of the following - Advanced Algebraic and Geometric Analysis, Intensive Algebra 2, Functions, Trigonometry & Statistics, Algebra 2 (B+), or Intensive Geometry with Trigonometry (B-)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Intensive Physical Computing & Robotics

The pace of this course is parallel to Physical Computing & Robotics, but there is a difference in depth. Specifically, students in the Intensive class are required to solve about 25 percent more problems and are expected to show mastery of the basic topics as well as learn additional topics such as arrays, EEPROM data storage, and communications protocols. Students in this class are required to write nearly all of their algorithms from scratch. For the final project, their robots are expected to perform sophisticated autonomous tasks incorporating multiple feedback control systems. Students take the following modules in order, and students who have successfully completed AP Computer Science may begin with the second module rather than the first.

Introduction to Physical Computing: Module 1
In the first module of the Physical Computing and Robotics class series, students focus mostly on C++ coding techniques and hardware interactions used with embedded controllers. Students build circuits using breadboards and printed circuits to work with LED lighting effects, sensors, motors, displays, audio emitters, and other devices.

Sensing the World with Robotics: Module 2
In the second term of the Physical Computing and Robotics class series, students focus on the integration of electronic sensory devices into mobile autonomous robotics. Each student has their own robot to work with. Once the student has shown an understanding of programming basics, CAD design, and electronics, they are on their own to create, build, and program one or more robotic applications that will perform some autonomous tasks.

Independent Projects in Physical Computing: Module 3
In the third term of the Physical computing and robotics class series, students focus on building a custom creation blending all available resources of the previous two terms. The sky is not the limit but, just another challenge in this module. Students get an opportunity to challenge themselves to create devices that incorporate embedded controllers into a plethora of creations from autonomous drones and submarines to wearable fashions and game controllers, it’s up to the student to design and prototype a show worthy system or device.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Intensive Algebra 2 (B) or Math 4 (B) or Algebraic and Geometric Analysis. In addition, 10th graders wishing to enroll must have earned either an A- in Chemistry or a B in Intensive Chemistry. Juniors and seniors need to have earned a B in a biology or chemistry course.

Prerequisite for ’22-’23: Intensive Algebra 2 (B) or Intensive Geometry with Trigonometry (A-) or Advanced Algebraic and Geometry Analysis. In addition, 10th graders wishing to enroll must have earned either an A- in Chemistry or a B in Intensive Chemistry. Juniors and seniors need to have earned a B in a biology or chemistry course.

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Applied Technologies in Botany

This course explores new and emerging tools for plant sciences, with a particular emphasis on botany and farming applications, such as plant breeding and production management. Robotic platforms gives students the ability to imagine, design, and build equipment for monitoring plant growth. Automated control and acquisition of growth variables provide insights into plant growth status, pest management, water, and fertilizer applications. This course is designed to expose students to cross-disciplinary knowledge to solve problems, requiring creativity and flexible thinking.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: 2 credits of biology and Introduction to Physical Computing Module 1 and Module 2
Prerequisite '22-23: a biology course and Introduction to Physical Computing

Open to: 11, 12

George School Field Studies

This course is an interdisciplinary, multi-sensory approach to examining the natural world found on the campus of George School. Through pen and paper and by “get your hands dirty” outdoor exploration, students immerse themselves in the nature that surrounds them while exploring writing and art, as a response to the human experience with nature. The course considers the ways that scientific discoveries inspire new visions in writing and art and the ways that writing and art inspire new approaches in science, in particular, conservation biology and ecology. This course takes place OUTSIDE and requires active participation from students. Students also create scientifically accurate biological illustrations in field notebooks.

Students experience a field ecology course, a Socratic seminar, and wildlife illustration. The course is broadly be broken into two sections of study: The Autumn and The Spring. During each section students read a selection of novels, short stories, and poems related to the study area while also actively participating in field work within the scope of that area of scholarship. Students utilize outdoor spaces on the GS campus such as the Fireplace near the Newtown Creek to discuss the readings. Students are not required to take both mods.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-2.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Environmental Science: Sustainable Systems

This environmental science course is designed to look at a wide range of interdisciplinary topics through a sustainability lens: how to live more harmoniously with nature and not deplete its non-renewable resources. Major topics include climate science, global warming, geological processes, plate tectonics, volcanology, ecological principles, conservation biology, resource management, renewable energy, population impact, environmental stewardship, sustainable development, organic gardening, green living, and environmental politics.

Concepts are presented in lectures, student presentations. Inquiry-based projects are supplemented with lab investigations. Campus walks and studies reinforce the concepts discussed in class. The curriculum is supplemented by online articles and other sources to synchronize the course with current environmental issues. Students are assessed on participation in class discussions and activities, as well as lab reports and testing.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: two credits of biology or three credits of chemistry
Prerequisite for '22-23: a biology or chemistry course

Open to: 11, 12

IB SL Environmental Systems

This lab-driven, interdisciplinary course prepares students for the IB Environmental Systems & Societies exam. Students use systems thinking to explore ecosystems, energy and nutrient transformations, population dynamics, biodiversity, and the issues of global warming and pollution management. Students also investigate a range of environmental value systems with reference to specific environmentally-related decisions made locally and globally. Students should expect to work knee-deep in water or trudge through thick meadows, rain or shine, because fieldwork is central to understanding the environment. A summer assignment is required in preparation for the course, and this course can be taken over two years. All students are also required to participate in the IB Group 4 (IBG4) collaborative research project and complete an independent research project for the IB Internal Assessment.

Taking the external IB SL Environmental Systems and Societies exam is a requirement of this course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 4.0-4.0

Prerequisite: one credit of Evo/Eco Biology (while only one credit of biology is required for this course, two credits of biology are required for graduation)
Prerequisite for '22-23: Biology (B-) or Intensive Biology (C+)

Open to: 11, 12

Animal Behavior

This single mod course is designed to introduce students to the major topics in animal behavior, or ethology, from a sociobiological point of view. It familiarizes students with some general non-human behaviors such as territoriality, breeding behaviors, animal societies, and other predictable ways that animals interact with each other. Students study numerous species through videos or direct observation. When possible, students study animals living on campus. Students are expected to read articles and segments from textbooks dealing with social behaviors. There is a major research project studying a specific species that students must complete and present in order to pass the course.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: one credit of Evo/Eco Biology (while only one credit of biology is required for this course, two credits of biology are required for graduation)
Prerequisite for '22-23: Biology or Intensive Biology

Open to: 11, 12

Environmental Justice

In this course, students explore the relationship of exposure to environmental degradation and health risks to socioeconomic status and communities of color. Various issues of investigation include topics in rural, urban, local, domestic, and international regions. Students examine current examples of environmental injustice and choose a topic for a project-based unit (PBL). Laboratory investigations and data analysis are incorporated regularly into the work.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: two credits of biology

Open to: 11, 12

Science & Literature

This course is cross-listed as MUL430L (Extradisciplinary) and ENG550C (English). See MUL430L (Extradisciplinary) in the Extradisciplinary section of the catalog for description.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: 1 credit of either Biology or Intensive Biology

Open to: 11, 12

Cognitive Neurology

This course is designed to study how we as humans acquire skills and knowledge thanks to brain plasticity and synaptic pruning. On a more fundamental level, it looks at the biological and social constraints of how and what we learn. Students investigate: cognitive biases and mindsets, decision-making processes, our drive and thirst for knowledge, primate cognition and social intelligence, the neurology of memory, and the role cognition has played in our evolution, behavior, and perception.

Students explore some of the questions regarding the way we, as a species, perceive, behave, and respond to the world around us, challenging themselves to look for personal connections. As they search for a deeper understanding of the scientific principles covered, students examine the validity of the theories presented to them about how the brain works. Labs explore the student’s perception and ability to learn from games and cognitive situations and simulations. Students also do online investigations about the parts of the brain. Students are expected to write thorough reflections from readings, discussions, and lab activities.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 2.0-2.0

Prerequisite: 2 credits of biology
Prerequisite for '22-23: a biology course

Open to: 11, 12

Human Anatomy and Physiology

This course takes a holistic and applied approach to introducing students to the structure and function of the systems in the human body. The course relies heavily on laboratory activities, as well as discussions that emphasize the interconnected nature of anatomy and physiology. Laboratories include the dissection of preserved comparative anatomy specimens and the use of small Manikens® to support building anatomical structures with clay. The class is appropriate for any student interested in pursuing a medical-related field of study, such as human and veterinary medicine, physical therapy, nursing, biomedical research and beyond. It is also appropriate for students who have an interest in anatomy and physiology as it applies to their own health and wellness.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: one credit of Cell Bio/Biochem (while only one credit of biology is required for this course, two credits of biology are required for graduation)
Prerequisite for '22-23: a biology course (C)

Open to: 11, 12

Independent Science Research

This non-traditional course provides the student who enrolls the opportunity to further develop a keen interest in science through cooperation with a mentor and the coordinating George School teacher. Students who enroll must identify and cultivate a relationship with a mentor in order to design and carry out an independent scientific research project. The project can be done either on or off campus. Projects may incorporate any step(s) of the scientific process, including grant writing, experimental design, sample collection, sample testing, data analysis, and presentation of findings.

Because of the independent nature of the work, the course does not meet during an arrangement. The project may be implemented after school, on weekends, and/or during vacations. The number of credits awarded will be dependent upon the time required to implement the project. Typically, a 50-hour project will earn 1 credit, a 75-hour project will earn 2 credits and a 100-hour project will earn 3 credits.

As part of this course, students complete an online curriculum in which they explore the scientific method and develop skills in reading scientific literature, and each student makes a public presentation on their project. The exact nature of the presentation is developed in consultation with the coordinating teacher.

Students should contact the science department head for detailed instructions on developing a proposal.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-9.0

Prerequisite: Three years of high school science with a B+ or higher in each class and approval of the department. Students must have completed at least one term at George School to enroll. A student enrolling in this course during the academic year must be taking no fewer than six and no more than seven other courses concurrently.

Open to: 11, 12

Wildlife Conservation & Ecology in Uganda

This course is cross-listed as MUL991U (Extradisciplinary). See MUL991U (Extradisciplinary) in the Extradisciplinary section of the catalog for description.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

South Africa: Art, Ecology & Social Justice

This course is cross-listed as MUL990S (Extradisciplinary) and ARV990S (Arts). See the course description for MUL990S (Extradisciplinary) in the Extradisciplinary section of the catalog.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 11, 12

Spanish 1

In this course, students learn through listening, speaking, reading, and writing activities. Classes also include exposure to the richness and variety of Hispanic cultures. Music, games, and projects are among the tools used to foster an environment of engaged language learners. Spanish is the primary language of instruction in this introductory course.

Students are expected to take an active role on a daily basis by working in groups, in pairs, or as individuals. Successful language acquisition requires systematic review and practice outside the classroom as well as diligent preparation of daily homework assignments. Homework can include listening, reading, writing, and speaking assignments. Evaluation is based on daily aural/oral and written assessments, quizzes, dialogues, skits, and a test following each chapter. A cumulative exam is administered at the end of each mod.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: none

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Spanish 2

Spanish 2 begins with a review of vocabulary and structures covered in Spanish 1 and expands upon those skills. Some of the highlights include narration in the past, daily routine, personal preferences, needs, and future time. Spanish is the primary language of instruction as students learn through listening, speaking, reading, and writing activities. Classes also include exposure to the richness and variety of Hispanic cultures. Music, games, and projects are among the tools used to foster an environment of engaged language learners.

Students are expected to take an active role on a daily basis by working in groups, in pairs, or as individuals. Successful language acquisition requires systematic review and practice outside the classroom as well as diligent preparation of daily homework assignments. Homework includes listening, reading, writing, and speaking assignments. Evaluation is based on daily aural/oral and written assessments, quizzes, dialogues, skits, and a test following each chapter. A cumulative exam is administered at the end of each mod.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Spanish 1 (C-)

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Intensive Spanish 2

Spanish 3 begins with a review of vocabulary and structures covered in Spanish 2 and expands upon those skills. The focus is on strengthening the skills acquired in Spanish 2. Short literary excerpts are introduced and writing exercises may include compositions or journal work. This course can prepare students for Intensive Spanish 4 if additional work is completed successfully over the summer. Spanish is the primary language of instruction as students learn through listening, speaking, reading, and writing activities. Classes also include exposure to the richness and variety of Hispanic cultures. Music, games, and projects are among the tools used to foster an environment of engaged language learners.

Students are expected to take an active role on a daily basis by working in groups, in pairs, or as individuals. Successful language acquisition requires systematic review and practice outside the classroom as well as diligent preparation of daily homework assignments. Homework might include listening, reading, writing, and speaking assignments. Evaluation is based on daily aural/oral and written assessments, quizzes, dialogues, skits, and a test following each chapter. A cumulative exam is administered at the end of each term.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Spanish 1 (B)

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Spanish 3

Spanish 3 begins with a review of vocabulary and structures covered in Spanish 2 and expands upon those skills. The focus is on strengthening the skills acquired in Spanish 2. Short literary excerpts are introduced and writing exercises may include compositions or journal work. This course can prepare students for Intensive Spanish 4 if additional work is completed successfully over the summer. Spanish is the primary language of instruction as students learn through listening, speaking, reading, and writing activities. Classes also include exposure to the richness and variety of Hispanic cultures. Music, games, and projects are among the tools used to foster an environment of engaged language learners.

Students are expected to take an active role on a daily basis by working in groups, in pairs, or as individuals. Successful language acquisition requires systematic review and practice outside the classroom as well as diligent preparation of daily homework assignments. Homework might include listening, reading, writing, and speaking assignments. Evaluation is based on daily aural/oral and written assessments, quizzes, dialogues, skits, and a test following each chapter. A cumulative exam is administered at the end of each term.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Spanish 2 (C-)

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Intensive Spanish 3

Intensive Spanish 3 begins with a brief review of vocabulary and structures covered in Spanish 2. The focus is on strengthening the skills acquired in Spanish 2. Short literary excerpts are introduced. During Term 3, students are exposed to sophisticated readings from sources other than their textbooks. Writing includes frequent compositions or journal work. There is an emphasis on creativity and independent thinking. Spanish is the primary language of instruction as students learn through listening, speaking, reading, and writing activities. Classes also include exposure to the richness and variety of Hispanic cultures. Music, games, and projects are among the tools used to foster an environment of engaged language learners.

Students are expected to take an active role on a daily basis by working in groups, in pairs, or as individuals. Successful language acquisition requires systematic review and practice outside the classroom as well as diligent preparation of daily homework assignments. Homework might include listening, reading, writing, and speaking assignments. Evaluation is based on daily aural/oral and written assessments, quizzes, dialogues, skits, and a test following each chapter. A cumulative exam is administered at the end of each term. This course is a pre-IB course, preparing students for IB Spanish 4.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Spanish 2 (B+ and approval of department head) or Intensive Spanish 2 (C)

Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12

Spanish: Current Events

This course is designed for students seeking to further their Spanish-language experience. Conducted entirely in Spanish, the focus in class is active communication. Written projects and assignments, however, are completed throughout the course. Through news sites, podcasts, videos, documentaries, advertisements, entertainment and other current media, students learn about the world today, in Latin America, Spain and beyond. The news perspective is not merely one from this country, rather one from across the globe. This course is a potential pathway to Intensive Spanish 4.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Spanish 3 (B) or Intensive Spanish 3 (C)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

Intensive Spanish 4

This course focuses on strengthening students' communicative skills in all four language areas—listening, speaking, reading and writing—as well as developing greater cultural awareness. A variety of media including films, documentaries, web-based resources, songs, articles, and literary selections are used to build vocabulary, enhance listening skills, stimulate discussion, improve grammar, achieve greater linguistic proficiency, and make connections with a variety of Hispanic cultures. This class is conducted entirely in Spanish and all students are expected to actively participate in class activities.

Mod 1: Social organization and experiences
Mod 2: Identities and human ingenuity
Mod 3: How we share the planet (intermediate speaking proficiency skills)

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Intensive Spanish 3 (C+) or Spanish 3 (B)

Open to: 10, 11, 12

IB SL Spanish B

For students taking the IB SL exam in May 2024 or later, the IB SL Spanish course consists of either 3 mods of Intensive Spanish 4 (SPA451A) plus the IB SL mod, or at least 2 mods of Advanced Spanish (SPA550A) plus the IB SL mod. Students must have at least two mods of Spanish (including the IB-specific mod) in the year they sit for the exam.

Students in this course must sit for the IB exam.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-4.0

Prerequisite: Intensive Spanish 3 (C+) or Spanish 3 (B)

Open to: 11, 12

AP Spanish

Students can prepare for the AP Spanish Language and Culture exam by taking 3 mods of Intensive Spanish 4 (SPA451A) along with an additional mod that focuses on AP exam preparation. Students enter this class experienced in reading, writing, speaking, and understanding Spanish. This class is conducted entirely in Spanish and active oral participation is key. Each year, the literary, grammatical, and cultural foci of this class may vary. Students read, interpret and discuss formal and informal prose and literature, listen to authentic audio and video recordings, develop speaking skills in a variety of settings, and write both formal essays and informal communications.

It is expected that students in this course will take the AP Spanish Language exam Spanish exam in May.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 4.0-4.0

Prerequisite: 3 mods of Intensive Spanish 3 (B)

Open to: 11, 12

Advanced Spanish

Students enter this class experienced in reading, writing, speaking, and understanding Spanish. This class is conducted entirely in Spanish and active oral participation is key. Each year, the literary, grammatical, and cultural foci of this class may vary. Students read, interpret and discuss formal and informal prose and literature, listen to authentic audio and video recordings, develop speaking skills in a variety of settings, and write both formal essays and informal communications.

The course includes two mods focused on literature and cinema.

This course has a summer assignment.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: Intensive Spanish 4 (B)

Open to: 11, 12

IB HL Spanish B

The IB HL Spanish course consists of 3 mods of either Intensive Spanish 4 (SPA451A) or Advanced Spanish (SPA550A) in 11th grade, followed by at least 2 mods of Advanced Spanish (SPA550A) or Spanish Seminar (SPA650A) along with the IB HL mod in 12th grade. Students may elect to include either the AP Spanish mod or the IB SL Spanish mod in 11th grade if they would like to sit for one of those exams.

Students in this course must sit for the IB exam in May of 12th grade.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 3.0-7.0

Prerequisite: Intensive Spanish 3 (B)

Open to: 11, 12

Spanish Seminar

This course is for students who have native or near-native command of the Spanish language and want to continue their study beyond Advanced Spanish. Content is tailored to the needs and interests of the students taking the course in a particular year. Past topics have included current events, literature, arts, history, and science.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-3.0

Prerequisite: IB/AP Spanish 5 (B) or Advanced Spanish 5 (B)

Open to: 11, 12

Peruvian Past and Culture

This summer travel-abroad course is cross-listed as MUL820P (Extradisciplinary). See MUL820P (Extradisciplinary) in the Extradisciplinary section of the catalog for description.

Min-Max Credit Hours: 1.0-1.0

Prerequisite: Intensive Spanish 3 and parental consent

Open to: 11, 12